Wednesday, July 31, 2019

Social Anthropology Paper

If I were to look up the word ‘sociology’ the dictionary would tell me that it’s the study of the development, structure, and functioning of human society. For some, sociology can be a hard word to define, considering it can mean so many different things based on how that particular person looks at it. Now if you were to ask me what I think sociology mearns, at first I couldn’t really tell you. Once I had time to think about it I would more than likely say it is the study of why people are the way they are and how that affects and is effected by the world around us.Around this same time last year I was doing research for a career project. I didn’t know very much about sociology and had no thought or intention of choosing a job in that field for my project. I was browsing through jobs though that had a high job outlook and stumbled upon Social Anthropology. I had never heard of this career and didn’t really know what it meant. After doing more research and â€Å"googling†, I realized that this job consisted of all the things I had always been curious about. I never really understood other societies or why people behaved the way they did.I know now that anthropology has so many more components to it than the social aspect of it, but that is the main reason why I chose to do my project on it. For awhile I thought I would actually want to go to school to be an Anthropologist, but outside influences made me think otherwise. My interest in social anthropology is actually how I ended up in this class. The fact that history plays a part in it is a plus, because I love learning about history as well. Sociology just sounded interesting to me and there wasn’t much else I was interested in taking.Furthermore, I learned a little bit about some of the more famous names in social anthropology, such as Franz Boas, Ruth Benedict, Zora Neale Hurston, Lewis Henry Morgan, and Claude Levi-Strauss. They all contributed to the sc ience in their own ways, influenced by some and influencing others. Boas is known as the â€Å"father of modern cultural anthropology†, while Levi-Strauss was known as the â€Å"founder of structuralism†, and Morgan being one of the more controversial anthropologists. Lewis Henry Morgan was among the few to be cited by sociologist Karl Marx and social scientist Friedrich Engel.Franz Boas was also known as the â€Å"father of American anthropology†. He was a mentor to many great names in American anthropology. His works were highly influential, works such as The Mind of Primitive Man, Anthropology and Modern Life, and The Kwakiult Ethnography. As a young child Franz was allowed to think for himself and do his own thing. His interest in sciences only grew as he got older. He knew he wanted to pursue anthropology after taking a trip to the arctic and becoming fascinated with the people there.Claude Levi-Strauss was one of the more influential anthropologists of the 20th century. He did a lot of field work among primitive tribes and he thought that their way of life was in no way beneath the way of life of civilized societies. He was influenced by Marxism as well. Structuralism focused on society and the people that make up that society, along with their inner life. Levi-Strauss’ more important works includes The Savage Mind, Structural Anthropology, and Tristes Tropiques. So, back to why I no longer thought going to school for anthropology was a good suit for me.I was constantly asked, â€Å"What would I do with a degree in anthropology? † and to be honest I don’t think that I am ambitious enough for what it may require. I did learn however, that having a degree in anthropology opened the door to a number of jobs such as education, health care, museum curation, social work, international development, government, organizational psychology, non-profit management, marketing, publishing, and forensics. I may not pursue a degr ee in this field, but I will always have an interest in it.Although anthropology can be considered a branch of sociology, there are ways that they differ. They both deal with the idea that our behavior is shaped by the people we surround ourselves with and cultural traditions. Anthropologists typically study non-Western societies, such as primitive cultures. On the other hand sociologists study modern Western societies. Another difference would be that anthropologists are more likely to do participant observation, while sociologists deal more with surveys. There are major differences between the two, but their overall goal of â€Å"peeling ack the layers† of societies and cultures are ssimilar. What does this all mean to me? I am only looking forward to gaining more knowledge in anthropology and look forward to learning more about sociology. In this class I hope to gain a better understanding of our own government, because of its current state. I want to know why change isnâ €™t as easy as it may seem. I would just like to listen and learn and possibly gain some knowledge that will in turn make me a better person and allow me to be the change I want to see.

Tuesday, July 30, 2019

Losing Common Sense in a Sea of Technology Essay

Technology has made miracles take place. Technology is an asset to our society. Things we could not do with our anatomical brains we can conjure up with a machine. With the answers to simple questions at fingertips with the availability of the internet, simple thought processes replaced with instant gratification. Critical thinking is almost extinct due to rapid response internet websites and databases. In today’s society, we depend on computers and technology to dictate schedules, lead meetings, and manage social lives. Therefore, ruing personal bonds, destroying critical and creative thinking, and losing common sense. The introduction of technology and computers on society has been beneficial in many areas, science having the biggest impact. For example, new radar technology will allow forecasters to see extreme weather, as will potential improvements to satellite technology, as well as computer models that run on powerful super computers. With these radars improved, more lives saved. â€Å"This will allow us to get to cover faster and be better prepared† (Lubchenco, Hayes 68). Another example of how technology has been beneficial to our society is in the medical field. Today many surgeries perform with the help of robots. Robotically assisted cardiac surgery presents less invasive than conventional surgery, with shortened hospital stays and faster return to daily activities (Krueger, Jones, Howell, etal. ) The largest benefit of technology is the easy and fast access that has come from the Internet. Almost any subject matter, research papers, and technical documents are available to anyone. Communication has also become much simpler using the Internet. Computers and the internet has become a staple in the American home. Not only are Americans conforming to an E-society, the rest of the world is too. This intention of this paper is not to discourage technology. Technology has done the unimaginable in societies here and abroad, perhaps technology has done too much. As we advance in the small gadgets and upgrade our systems to use the latest software, it is safe to say, we have become â€Å"addicted†. Because of this â€Å"addiction† or dependency on technology and computers, more and more people are flooding to their P. D. A’s or to their laptops to do simple everyday tasks; we should know how to do already. Anything from grocery shopping, booking a plane flight, depositing a paycheck, can be done over the internet from a personal computer, cell phone, or I Pad. Life as we know it is becoming a virtual reality within itself. We focus our addenda’s and our itineraries based around technology. Despite the positive impact technology has made on education, there are certainly areas that it poorly used. â€Å"The uncontrolled use of technology without examining its long-term benefits and potential problems is not something that should be allowed to happen in education. (Hodorowicz) For example, more and more often universities are moving toward â€Å"distant learning†, or online classes. â€Å"Nothing can replace the interactions between students and teachers. Once the process of learning from a fellow person has been automated to something mechanical many things will be lost† (Hodorowicz). Furthermore, automated grading loses the ability to see just where a student went wrong, or what the student was trying to achieve in an answer. Online courses remove the ability to deal with truly great teachers in a personal way, and it removes the ability to interact with other students. Automated education also hinders getting help when needed. It has been noted that with the use of computers and technology â€Å"education will no longer be an unpredictable and exciting adventure in human enlightenment, but an exercise in conformity and an apprenticeship to whatever gadgetry is useful in a technical world† (Schwarz). Technology has also been useful inside the home. yet, has been a key factor in the decline of stable, social relationships. Researchers are debating whether the Internet is improving or harming participation in community life and social relationships. This research examined the social and psychological impact of the Internet on 169 people in 73 households during their first 1 to 2 years on-line. We used longitudinal data to examine the effects of the Internet on social involvement and psychological well-being. In this sample, the Internet was used extensively for communication. Nonetheless, greater use of the Internet was associated with declines in participants’ communication with family members in the household, declines in the size of their social circle, and increases in their depression and loneliness (Kraut, Patterson,Keisler,etal. . Virtual communities are becoming an ever-growing normality. With the social networks like Facebook and twitter comes the anonymous predators. † The Internet is populated by people with false identities, people with inaccurate information, people who express themselves quickly and with little reflection or sense of accountability† (Schwarz). New frauds and ill opportunities to drain bank accounts emerge daily; just an example of how we are coming adapt to the cyber world with our eyes wide open. We are losing what it means to be human and the morals that were once instilled. As stated earlier in this paper, this is not a paper of whether technology in our world today is right or wrong. This is a paper proving how our ethical values and use of common knowledge are becoming extinct because we allow computers to think for us. We are losing creativity to think â€Å"outside the box† with our learning becoming more of a mathematical equation than an experience. Relying too much on technology is what will lead to the extinction of man, maybe not of a species, but of an individual, rather than random avitar. Works Cited Schwarz, Gretchen.

Monday, July 29, 2019

Animal Farm By George Orwell

Animal Farm By George Orwell Essay Animal Farm by George OrwellCharacters, items, and events found in George Orwells book, Animal Farm, can be compared to similar characters, items, and events found in Marxism and the 1917 Russian Revolution. This comparison will be shown by using the symbolism that is in the book with similarities found in the Russian Revolution. Old Major was a prized-boar that belonged to Farmer Jones. The fact that Old Major is himself a boar was to signify that radical change and revolution are, themselves, boring in the eyes of the proletariat (represented by the other barnyard animals), who are more prone to worrying about work and survival in their everyday life. Old Major gave many speeches to the farm animals about hope and the future. He is the main animal who got the rebellion started even though he died before it actually began. Old Majors role compares to Lenin and Marx whose ideas were to lead to the communist revolution. Animal Farm is a criticism of Karl Marx, as well as a novel perpe tuating his convictions of democratic Socialism. (Zwerdling, 20). Lenin became leader and teacher of the working class in Russia, and their determination to struggle against capitalism. Like Old Major, Lenin and Marx wrote essays and gave speeches to the working class poor. The working class in Russia, as compared with the barnyard animals in Animal Farm, were a laboring class of people that received low wages for their work. Like the animals in the farm yard, the people is Russia thought there would be no oppression in a new society because the working class people (or animals) would own all the riches and hold all the power. (Golubeva and Gellerstein 168). Another character represented in the book is Farmer Jones. He represents the symbol of the Czar Nicholas in Russia who treated his people like Farmer Jones treated his animals. The animal rebellion on the farm was started because Farmer Jones was a drunk who never took care of the animals and who came home one night, left the ga te open and the animals rebelled. Czar Nicholas was a very weak man who treated his people similar to how Farmer Jones treated his animals. The Czar made his working class people very mad with the way he wielded his authority and preached all the time, and the people suffered and finally demanded reform by rebelling. The Czar said ?The law will henceforward be respected and obeyed not only by the nation but also the authority that rules it and that the law would stand above the changing views of the individual instruments of the supreme power.? (Pares 420). The animal Napoleon can be compared as a character representing Stalin in Russia. Both were very mean looking, didnt talk very much but always got what they wanted through force. In one part of the book Napoleon charged the dogs on Snowball, another animal. Stalin became the Soviet Leader after the death of Lenin. He was underestimated by his opponents who always became his victims, and he had one of the most ruthless, regimes i n history. In was not till very many years later that the world found out about the many deaths that Stalin created in Russia during the Revolution. For almost 50 years the world thought that the Nazis had done the killing in Russia, when in fact it was Stalin. (Imse 2). The last characters that are symbolic of each other are the animal Snowball with the Russian leader Trotsky. Snowball was very enthusiastic and was a leader who organized the defense of the farm. He gave speeches and instructions but was not very beneficial. All the other animals liked him, but he was outsmarted by Napoleon. Trotsky and Stalins relationship was very much like Snowballs and Napoleons. Trotsky organized the Red Army and gave speeches and everyone in Russia thought he would win power over Stalin. After Lenins death Trotsky lost all his power to Stalin and was expelled from the communist party. He was at one time considered the second most powerful man in Russia. (Trotsky? Comptons 290). Besides charact ers there are many items that can be compared as symbols in the book and in Russia. The whip that Napoleon used in the farmyard to wield power can be compared to the power that Stalin used on the Russians. Napoleon carried a whip in his trotter. Stalin used his power to starve the Russian people and to have Lenin arrested. Stalins main goal was to maximize his personal power. (?Stalin,? Britannia 576). Stalin ?whipped? his people into shape by collectivizing agriculture, by police terror, and by destroying remnants of individual prosperity. He also led the Soviet Union into the nuclear age (Clarkson 442). Propaganda is another item that was used in the Russian revolution. It can be compared to Squealer in Animal Farm. Squealer brainwashed (a form of propaganda) the barnyard animals into believing that they did not like apples and milk, while he and Napoleon were stealing the food for themselves. In Russia, the Bolsheviks carried out propaganda on the people by passing out leaflets a nd putting stories in the newspapers that were not true. They told workers, soldiers, and peasants to not trust their own hands and to take away land from the landowners. (Golubeva and Gellerstein 80). Another item that is similar in both Animal Farm and Russia are the dogs and the secret police. Napoleon trained his dogs when they were puppies to guard him and to obey his every command. They chased Snowball away. Stalin trained his secret police to do his bidding whenever he issued an order. Stalin had his secret police kill between 60,000 to 70,000 people. These police were called the Checka and the graves filled with bodies stacked upon each other with bullets in each skull were found many years later. (Imse, C2). Another symbolism that exists in the book and in Russia is a similarity to events that took place. The windmill that is present in Animal Farm can be compared with the growth of industry in Russia or the Industrial Revolution. Snowball first introduced the windmill conc ept to the farm but Napoleon disagreed with him and had the dogs chase him away. Napoleon then presented the windmill as a good idea and the animals were presented with hope that things would get better on the farm. When it blew down, Napoleon blamed it on Snowball. Napoleon thought that if he could keep the barnyard animals busy all the time replacing the windmill that they would not realize how bad their living conditions were, and he could blame the destruction all the time on Snowball. The windmill is the only thing that was holding the animals together as a unit. In Russia the growth of factory and industry was very depressing but depended on the obligatory labor of serfs. Russia hoped that by keeping the serfs working all the time and promising them a better world that they would not realize how bad their living conditions were. The Industrialists were pressing their own constitutional demands. (Clarkson 352). None of the social classes were fighting each other because there w ere no classes left. What Russia got working was to make the people think that the prospect of loss of potential improvements in conditions of life of the here and now, could only be attained by stimulating labor to unprecedented efforts. The last event that was similar in the book and in Russia was the animal rebellion on the farm and the Russian Revolution of 1917. Farmer Jones was drunk a lot and would forget to feed the animals on the farm. The withholding of this food is what finally forced the animals on the farm to rebel against Farmer Jones. In Russia, there were many food shortages which caused the people to demonstrate and then the Russian soldiers refused to suppress them and the leaders demanded that Nicholas transfer his power to parliamentary government because everything was getting out of control. Soviet workers and soldiers formed a special committee and established a government. The same day the emperor abdicated. (?Russian Revolution,? Grolier npa). This actually backfired in Russia and the war continued and the people still starved. Many lessons can be learned by reading Animal Farm that can help countries and governments around the world from making mistakes in wielding their power against their people. If a population is suppressed and not allowed to accumulate things for themselves then an overthrow of the government that is suppressing them will be the result. WORKS CITEDClarkson, Jesse. A History of Russia. New York: Random House, 1969. Golubeva, T. and L. Gellerstein. Early Russia The Russie. Moscos, Press Agency Publishing House, 1976. Imse, Ann. Mass Grave Seen as Evidence of Massecure by Stalins Police. ?Hunstsville Times, 13, August. 1990. Orwell, George. Animal Farm. Signet 50th Anniversary Edition, Harcourt Brace Company, 1996. Pares, Sir Bernard. The Fall of the Russian Monarchy. New York: A division of Random House, 1939. ?Russian Revolution of 1917.? Grolier Electronic Publishing, Inc. 1992 ed. ?Stalin, Joseph.? Encyclopedi a Britannica. 1917 ed. READ: Mahatma gandhi Essay

Agrarian societies in history Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Agrarian societies in history - Essay Example The Agrarian period witnessed a lot of economic, cultural and political activity among various societies in the ancient societies. The differences in activity were inclined to a number of factors and this largely depended on the geographical habitat of a given society. The three fundamental questions that are tackled in this instance include, if there was any social structure in that society and how it was constructed, what was the diet of that particular society and lastly, what was important for the people of that society’s survival. The Tang dynasty in the Agrarian society was characterized by the caste system just like most of the earlier traditional Agrarian societies. There existed the rulers who were at the apex of the social structure and this caste went down to the laborers who were at the bottom of the social structure. It had a stable government with intellectuals being highly regarded. History of Tang dynasty majorly emphasizes only the mandarins and the nobles, th e clergy and the intellectuals who were at the top of the social system (Benn 56-59). Furthermore, the group of mentioned elite in the Tang society had little or no time for the artisans, merchants, traders and slaves. It is only the elite that left some of the writings that were found in the Chinese library many years later. On the contrary, the lower in the class system did not leave any writings behind. The Tang society was patriarchal in nature as no major recognition was given to women in the Tang society. ... In some instances, tea was taken with traditional Chinese bread which was mainly baked by women in Traditional Tang society. The Tang together with its sister, Chinese dynasty the Ming, gave great reverence to trade in gunpowder which was a very important economic activity. It was during this period that the gun powder was invented. Gun powder was one of the most important activities in the day to day lives of the people in the Tang dynasty. Lastly in regard to the Tang, religion played an essential role in the lives of the people. The Tang societies were very religious with Buddhism being the main religion of the entire dynasty. Buddhism attracted the largest number of adherents and it’s on the basis of Buddhism religion through which court decisions were influenced or made (Benn 94-97). Just like the Tang dynasty, the Aztec society was also a socially stratified society in the sense that there existed several classes among the Aztec people. There were the nobles and also the commoners. The king or ruler the Tlatoani was considered sacred together with his lineage and had great influence among the Aztec people. The Tlatoani was the voice of the Aztec and his word was given preeminence as sacred. He had his royal who served the main purpose of paving his way of the normal people. His words were taken to be the word of the gods and nobody in the Aztec society would go contrary to this. A child born in Aztec society grew up and eventually died on the class or caste that his family belonged to. They believed that the cosmos had its way of classifying people in classes and this was the will of the gods, for this reason they embraced the fit in system where one inherited his social strata by the mere virtue of birth. On their food preferences, animal meat was a

Sunday, July 28, 2019

Design statement Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1750 words

Design statement - Essay Example Financially sponsored by the universities, the website of AustraLearn is designed to promote and offer valid information about a total of 31different universities located throughout the Australia, New Zealand, and the South Pacific free services to interested foreign students. It also offers the prospective students not only long-term courses but also some short-term programs like a semester or a year abroad program, opportunity to participate in a high quality internship in Australia or New Zealand, the January term, or the summer abroad program. In line with this matter, the website provides the viewers the benefits of studying at each of the listed universities. It also accepts enrolment inquiries related to degree offered in each listed universities, the step-by-step application processes, financial aid, student visa, airline tickets, accommodation, etc. promoting only the different universities throughout Australia. Considering that the proposed program segregates all the Australian universities according to the geographical boundaries such as the Western Australia, Northern Territory, South Australia, Queensland, New South Wales, Victoria, and Tasmania; there is a higher chance that the viewers would decide to enrol in one of the Australian universities instead of the universities located in other countries. Furthermore, the simplicity of my design might be conducted the students to choose or not Australia as preferred study destination. The goal of this project is to provide the students the opportunity to choose a university based on the standard of teaching, tuition, lodging, the distance away from home, and the courses offered in accordance to their desired future career. From the educational perspective, the program will create a democratic learning environment by giving the students the freedom and opportunity to express their own

Saturday, July 27, 2019

Modern Design HistoryMiddle ages inspiration Term Paper

Modern Design HistoryMiddle ages inspiration - Term Paper Example His carriers advance before world war and after world war by the recommendation of his master he appointed as master in 1919. At this old age he become world famous by Bauhaus. From this time he designed famous door handles (become icon of twentieth century) and large scale housing projects. Augustus Welby Northmore Pugin was an English architect designer remembered by his works on Churches and as design theorist. On his school days he started his talents in design and 15th age went to work and also works as freelance designer. In 17th of his age started small business and after this many books were published. He became an advocate of Christian firm of architecture and on that time by the book Contracts, he group an ideal society by modern secular culture. He designed and refurnished Catholic churches and express his view by become the principal of Christian architecture. Within his limited age of 39 years he designed famous Parliament buildings, railway cottages and other famous works and become world famous. John Ruskin at his college time he reenrolled as gentlemen commoner and then awarded honorary fourth class degree without attending so many days in class.

Friday, July 26, 2019

Globalization Questionnaire Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Globalization Questionnaire - Research Paper Example Because of globalization, international market or global market came into existence. International or global market then is composed of different countries trading products and services with each other. Companies have been going out of their home countries and starting to build their names in other countries. This is basically the reason why we see imported products being displayed in supermarkets and department stores such as wines from Italy, gadgets and cellular phones from Asia, and shoes from Germany. Some of the international trade theories that support globalization are mercantilism, free trade, comparative advantage, absolute advantage, Heckscher-Ohlin theory, the product life-cycle theory, new trade theory, and Porter’s theory or the national competitive advantage. Rugman (2009) argued that globalization has four major drivers: market, government, competition, and cost. Market globalization drivers are factors that usually affect the demand for a specific product or service such as consumers’ common preferences, increasing consumers from different countries, and global market distribution. Governments had taken the initiative to take off international trade and investment barriers and establish free trade. They also reduced trade tariffs and eliminated restrictions in the quantity of products and services to be imported or exported. Globalization is greatly influenced by competition. For instance, a company might consider establishing a satellite office in another country to deliver their products to foreign consumers. Because of this act, other competitors would also want to go global and promote their companies to diverse markets. Other examples of competitive drivers are increasing number of alliances between multinational companies and increasing globally-centered companies. Almost all companies would want to maximize profit thereby minimizing their costs. There are countries where production and

Thursday, July 25, 2019

The Visconti Book of Hours Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

The Visconti Book of Hours - Essay Example In addition, a large number of mistakes used to be included. Saying so, 'The Visconti Book of Hours' does present a startling revelation of form and structure. And its illuminated teachings make raise question on whether such manuscripts, by way of their rich representation can help us understand the important aspects of the reader's response to a text, its contents and whether such manuscripts did help publisher's cater to the concept of a wider market that profited out of the phenomenon of easy acceptability of the masses. If the liturgy used enormous paintings to affect the reader's mind instantly, then the printing press too, tried to imbibe such helpful aspects, but not after much later. The Visconti Hours is a 14th century book of hours. "A Book of Hours is a compendium of devotional texts that takes its name from its one essential text, the Hours of the Virgin, or more properly the Little Office of the Blessed Virgin Mary. It is called an 'Hours,' or Horae in Latin, because it is subdivided into eight parts, one for each of the 'hours' of the liturgical day - Matins, Lauds, Prime, Terce, Sext, None, Vespers, and Compline". The manuscript actually divided was into two separate volumes. They were the Biblioteca Nazionale, Florence, under the cataloguing numbers Banco Rari 397 and Landau Finaly 22. Illuminated by two quite different artists, Giovannino dei Grassi who painted the first folios for Giangaleazzo Visconti, despot of Milan., and after Giangaleazzo's death in 1402 it was resumed by Belbello da Pavia for Giangaleazzo's son, Filippo Maria, after he became Duke in 1412. Book of Hours refers to Giangaleazzo as Count and was supposedly written before his coronation in 1395. His concern for the acceptance of his authority is quite clear from the way he displays his heraldic devices and mottoes abound the prayer book made primarily for private use. In addition, Giangaleazzo himself is represented three times along with the Duke of Berry, who also insisted on being portrayed in his Book of Hours. While Giangaleazzo does not appear in the prayer before the Virgin or a saint, his head alone is depicted in a medallion unrelated to the religious scenes. Judging from all these one ma conclude that the latent forces of secularity or a subtle contest between religious and the secula r (Divine Right of the king) has come into play, which may be a new idiosyncrasy of the printing age of the Renaissance, when human values were coming to the fore and man was the centre of celebration. Between 1385 until 1402, Giangaleazzo devoted himself primarily to the expansion of his political power and his chief interest in sports like hunting wild animals, did not escape the autobiographical mention in the Visconti Hours too. Trained birds of pray populate the borders, while his profile is framed with a hunting dog and a stag in Folio 115, thereby bringing David the hunter from the psalm join the king's passion. From helping build a library of illuminated books in Palvia, he shared his love for nature and animals by serving as a patron of such illustrated manuscripts devoted to plants and animals, which did not escape his Visconti Hours too. Here we see a dedicated involvement with religious teaching along with a worldly touch that bespeaks of an era where man

Wednesday, July 24, 2019

Race to the Top Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Race to the Top - Research Paper Example The assessment was supposed to be common for everyone throughout the state for purposes of uniformity. Disabled students were considered so they could also participate in the program. Those with the language barrier especially in English were given special accommodations. The program was meant to measure certain standards that previous programs could not. The main aim was to make scoring uniform so that colleges could use the same results for placement purposes. The discussions of the pros and cons of that program are meant to help us decide on whether the program was effective or not. Cons The first issue is that the program applies the use of multiple-choice questions in their assessment. In as much as such kind of questions reduce subjectivity when marking and scoring, they have been shown to narrow the curriculum. In addition to this, scanty reading and guesswork is highly used when answering such questions leading to untrue scores. It is impossible to tell what a student knows a nd what concepts were never understood. There was the introduction of performance tests in the 1990’s to help improve on the programs. These kinds of assessment included doing practical work, science experiments and extended essays, which enabled the student to apply theory into practice. This was to be seen as a success, but a problem arose in reliability of the scores; score results in some places could not be used to make any important inference. The tests were made of fewer questions and this meant that the area covered was not as extensive as any test should. The seriousness of the validity of performance tests was so vast that by 2002, only a few such kind of tests were given. Seeing all these disadvantages, the federal funding decided increase the number of tests and instead use a range different types of assessments. Nevertheless, this would increase the total cost of developing the tests and even scoring. It was also seen that teachers are forced to pull out of schoo l to score the tests and the inability of such teachers to engage in other activities that foster professional development. Teachers are bound to learn more during their first scoring exercise but this would change over time because of the teacher’s knowledge that scores are compared. In as much as there is professional improvement in instructions given to class, it is very hard for a teacher to change instructions that will cater for the unique needs of each student. In cases where a student was required to express what they know like in performance tests, language and inability to write essays was a hindrance to the accomplishment of many students. Apparently, only valid test scores can be used to make inferences, valid tests are those that give the same result if issued to the same group for a second time. However, such scores cannot be used to test teacher and principal quality because they do not directly do so. This may seem like very small areas but in terms of test re liability and validity, a problem in a small area is bound to make the whole test insignificant. Pros In order to know if an assessment system works, it is important to subject it to rigorous effectiveness exercises. Also for validity, it is important to make tests uniform and to standardize the conditions under which every test is given (Dietel 4). This kind of system enabled educators to perform the two exercises

Tuesday, July 23, 2019

Organisational Changes within NHS Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 4000 words

Organisational Changes within NHS - Essay Example It aims to promote health by best utilization of the resources, and is keen in introducing frameworks for vertical integration, elective factories, disease management, and APMS. (Integrated models, 2006) the support of the UK government in this regard has been through the introduction of a ten year modernization plan of NHS, (Department of Health, Quality in service, 1998) It would have been a much different picture had it been viewed around five years ago. NHS has been playing its part even before the 1940s, where it gave "universal coverage and overly effective cost containment". (Stevens, 2004) NHS had a very low per capita health in the year 2000, as opposed to Germany, USA, Canada and France. (OECD, 2003) The resulting infrastructure was weak, marked by less health care facilities, both in quality and quantity. Another motivation factor was the increased and high profile reporting of grave medical errors in the UK. (Bristol Royal Infirmary Inquiry Team, 2000) This was mainly found in the hospital sector with factors such as hospital performance data, increased cost of hospital care, and public interest in high tech medicine being the encouraging factors. (MN, 1999) In this regard, the role of primary care as a health care provider is becoming a new area for funding and development. (Roland et al, 1999) C The introduction of proposal to increase the NHS funding by the Blair administration since its election has markedly increased the standards of healthcare in the UK. Campbell (2005) has also given positive feedback on the state of development of health care in the UK. In his study regarding improvements in healthcare quality in general health care practice, he observes a rise in the status of health care from the years 1998-2003.(Campbell,2005). His study was based on the three major chronic health care services, i.e. chronic heart disease, asthma and Type II diabetes. He appreciates the role NHS has played in this regard. (Campbell, 2005) NHS has been lauded for achieving its goals regarding patient waiting lists, cardiac surgery or A and E, as well as many small innovations in improving the overall condition of the institution. (Transition arrangements in NHS, 2006) In line with promoting the developments taking place, the introduction of integration models is one sector actively pursued and evaluated. The models that have been suggested are hospital integration of primary health care and disease management, primary care integration to divide load of hospitals onto practices, localities or APMS providers, or medical group practice models. (Integrated models of health care delivery, 2006) The introduction of the afore mentioned contributions as well as suggestions for new systems all promise a further acceleration in the progress of health care facilities in the UK. It is therefore important to highlight these efforts so as to attain a better assessment of the progress carried out in this regard. The planning and implementation of the long term strategies comes under the care of the NSFs, or National Service Frameworks, part of the NHS. The NSFs plans "strategies and measurable goals within set time frames."(NSFs, 2006) NSF works in alliance with ERGs, or External Reference Groups, which combine the various aspects of health care

The Phenomenon of Aging Essay Example for Free

The Phenomenon of Aging Essay Aging is an existential phenomenon, which is a natural part of development of universal significance (Erickson, 1963 Havighurst, 1959, in Ponzo, 1992). It is a biological, psychological, and sociological phenomenon. People have specific tasks to accomplish, as they grow older. For example, Erickson views middle age and late adulthood as a time when the individual must develop a sense of generativity and ego integrity or become stagnant and despairing. Jung (1969) believes spirituality is a domain that those over 40 are uniquely qualified to explore. Despite an increased understanding of aging and an ever-growing number of older adults, the elderly have to deal with age-based expectations and prejudices. As with other minority groups, elderly individuals are subject to negative stereotypes and discrimination. For instance, â€Å"older people often are tagged with uncomplimentary labels such as senile, absentminded, and helpless† (McCracken, Hayes, Dell, 1997, in Gladding, 2000). This negative attitudes and stereotypes, which are known as ageism, prevent intimate encounters with people in different age groups and sometimes lead to outright discrimination (Butler Lewis, 1973; Bulter et al., 1998). In a review of attitudes towards older individuals, Atkinson and Hackett (1998) found that elderly persons are considered to be rigid, and not adaptable in their thought processes; thought to be in poor health and not very intelligent or alert; inappropriate to have sexual interest or activity. Negative attitude toward elderly persons were present in college students, and among medical staff who feel uncomfortable around elderly patients. Jokes about old age abound and are primarily negative in nature. These negative stereotypes lead to elderly peoples being viewed as less valued members of society. Older women are even more likely to be viewed negatively by society as a whole. Elderly individuals may come to accept these views and suffer a loss of self-esteem (Sue Sue, 1999). Unfortunately, individuals who are growing old often deny and dread the process, a phenomenon that Friedan (1993, in Belsky, 1999) calls â€Å"the age mystique. † Even counselors are not immune to ageist attitudes (Belsky, 1999). Healthy Old Age Old age can be emotionally healthy and a satisfying time of life with a minimum of physical and mental impairment. Butler et al. (1998) observed that besides the general lack of interest in older persons, science and medicine have been more concerned with treating â€Å"what went wrong† than with clarifying the complex, interwoven elements necessary to produce and support health. Medicine and the behavioral sciences have mirrored societal attitudes by presenting old age as a grim litany of physical and emotional illness. Until 1960, most of the medical, psychological, psychiatric, and social work literature on the aged was based on experience with the sick and the institutionalized, even though only 5% of the older people were confined to institutions. Decline of the individual was the key concept. Fortunately, research studies that have concentrated on the healthy aged give indications of positive potential for the entire age group. What is healthy old age? In 1994, the World Health Organization first defined health as â€Å"a state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity. † This represents an ideal with many possible interpretations. But the broad elements of health -physical, emotional, and social- is the framework in which one can begin to analyze what is going on well in addition to what is going wrong. The attempt must be made to locate those conditions that enable humans to thrive, not merely survive. The unique developmental task in old age is to clarify, deepen, and find use for what one has already attained in a lifetime of learning and adapting (Butler et al.1998). Erickson (1963) stated it as ego integrity, the psychosocial task of later life involving accepting one’s life in order to accept impending death. The possessor of this integrity is ready to defend the dignity of his or her own life style against all odds, and they know that life has meaning. Paradoxically this sense of personal significance allows them to accept their insignificance in life-that is, the reality of death (Belsky, 1999). According to Atchely (1994) Butler et al. (1998) the ability of the older person to adapt and thrive is contingent on physical health, personality, earlier life experiences, and on the societal supports he or she receives; adequate finances, shelter, medical care, social roles, recreation, and the like. As is true of children, adolescents, and middle-aged, it is imperative that older people continue to develop and change in a flexible manner if health is to be promoted and maintained. Optimal growth and adaptation can occur throughout the life cycle when the individual’s strength and potentials are recognized, reinforced and encouraged by the environment in which he or she lives.

Monday, July 22, 2019

HR information system Essay Example for Free

HR information system Essay Human resource Management is a fundamental part of an organization. The use of technology for the advancement of human resource management has risen extensively from the last decade. In today’s organizations technology greatly influences the managerial processes and techniques in the human resources department. Information Technology has proven itself useful in every area of human life. It is become essential for organizations around the world to use advanced technology in departments of development, maintenance recruitment and various others. The large range of applications provided by IT have become indispensable for any operation and have proven themselves a quality improving and time saving necessity for the organizations desiring development and success. In the human resources management, technology is not only responsible for bringing positive changes but it has also brought a number of issues and challenges for organizations. The most major challenge that a company faces in the process of adopting and implementing these technologies is the restructuring of the HR modules. It is important for the effective functioning of the technologies to be aligned with the HR functions. The creation of a correct management atmosphere is important for the existence of successful and authentic organizations. The research encompasses the challenges and issues that come in the path of organizations while implying IT techniques on HR functions. Research Question How does the implementation of IT effect the human resource management and what advantages or disadvantages an organization faces when applying programs such as SAP? Aim The aim of this research is to determine the use of information systems in order to integrate Information Technology in Human Resource functions and also to outline the role of software programs namely SAP in human resource management and how it is effective in accomplishing this merger between technology and various Human Resource areas. Objectives to Achieve the Aim 1. To outline the importance of introducing Information Technology in Human Resources. 2. To discuss how Information Technology affects the progress of human resource management. 3. To describe the role that SAP plays in implementing technology in human Resources. 4. To explain the processes by which SAP software influences the Human Resource functions of an organization. 5. To determine what are the aspects which ensure the success of the implementation of Information Technology techniques in Human Resource Management. 6. To review the benefits and drawbacks that comes with the introduction of information systems in human resources. 7. To determine the functions of Information Technology within an organization. 8. To identify the nature of challenges and problems that can come in consequence of applying Information Technology techniques across Human resource functions. 9. To study how by the help of several techniques and methods Human Resources can evade these issues and challenges . 10. To summarize how effective is a merger between human resource and information technology to an organization’s development. Background of Research The research is based on the fact that how much advanced technology has become an important part of the business world in modern times. It is not possible for organizations to function properly in any department without the assistance of Information Technology and the tools it provides. Manual methods of management processes and transactions in firms are fast dying and being replaced by faster and surer methods of achieving various tasks that are required to be done. The old techniques cannot compete in today’s fast paced world and every institute should be ready to make the reforms and accept the changes that are brought upon their implementations. They need to hire employees who are efficient in technological operations or familiar with the advanced equipment and take assistance from IT related training  courses like SAP to make their employees aware of the advancements made in the processes of managing every aspect in a company and making them proficient in bringing those methods in their practice to improve the company’s standards and boost its growth. Organizations which do not take advantage from this wave of technology and do not learn to balance on it are sure to be submerged in the growing rate of the use of technology. The Human Resource department has also not lagged behind in this technological advancement marathon. Most organizations have been using one form or other of Human Resource information system over the last decade. In a research conducted in 2002 it has been found that seventy percent of the organizations in Europe use Internet or Intranet to provide Human Resource services to employees. Surveys done in the United Kingdom alone in 2005 by the Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development revealed that seventy seven percent of companies use HRIS. In a similar research done by Cranfield School of Management in 2003 it found out an even higher number of companies, at eighty two percent, that use HRIS. A human resource information system is able to give various performances ranging from the simple storage of data and communication of information to the entangled process of transactions. With the advancement of technology the functions provided by HRIS have increased and enhanced. HRIS is designed and improved to be beneficial to the functions of Human Resources, line managers, and the entire organization on the whole. If an overall study is done without bias the use of Information Technology has more advantages than problems. It has brought speed, accuracy, efficiency and fewer chances of downfalls in company processes and most importantly has brought a decrease in HR costs. It has also made possible to make Human Resource information available to managers and employees, enabling them to perform uncomplicated human Resource tasks themselves. The implementation of HRIS in order to cut down the cost rates of a company to lessen the burden of transaction and administration on Human Resource functions can lead to a modification in the constitution of HR and allow the function to also play an strategic part in the company. There can be various reasons due to which a company introduces HRIS to influence its functions such as the need to bring improvement to company processes or reduce cost to bring developments in communication and the growth of customer services. Rationale of the research This research has been done to outline in detail to show how the advancement of technology has affected Human Resources. It has raised standards of recruitment, training, data storage and retrieval and performance management. Before the HR recruiting teams had to rely on the print material, namely newspapers, to post ads about jobs get applicants for positions that need to be filled. More methods like networking were also used but that prevented the human resource recruiters to post jobs on a number of locations and also there was no method to make the ads visible to millions of people. Technology has made the method of recruitment more effectual and makes a much greater impact on HR than the old techniques. Training methods have also improved due to technology. In the past years there was were no ways to come in contact of company information and training programs from far way locations. The training of HR workers in virtual classrooms enables trainers to train larger numbers of people than before. Data storage and retrieval has also had a positive effect by the technological advances. The virtual files are more easily accessible and flexible in matters of changing data according to the wish of the HR professionals. It has become easy to monitor the performance of employees and also to receive feedback from the employees for the progress of the organization. Literature Review Emma Parry (2010) determines in the Benefits of technology in Human Resources Management that the use of technology has grown considerably in the last few years in the Human Resource department. She enhances how the capabilities and performances in the Human resource have gown because of the introduction of HRIM. It leads to take Human resource management to a whole new level. It allows it to emerge with a strategic role after the implementation of HRIM. Johnson and Gueuta (2011) states in Transforming HR through Technology that human resources is becoming a more technology based pr0ofession over the years. In most companies people think of Human Resources department more as a portal than a person. According to the recent researches it has been determined that companies who properly use the technologies provided by Human Resources are far successful and advanced than the ones who don’t.  Julie Bulmash (2012) describes Human Resource technology has advanced over the past decade and discusses the importance of technology on the role of human Resource professionals. And how do they make the function of Human Resources much more efficient, smooth and speedy. Methodology: Methodology refers to the methods of collecting data that have been used in the research. Here it will be briefly explained what kind of data collecting methods have been applied and the reason behind choosing that type of method. This research will be using the qualitative research methods for the collection of data. Data collection Methods To employ the qualitative research approach the questionnaire method of data collection has been chosen. A questionnaire has been created in that method in order to collect data by providing the employee with a questionnaire and he\she are asked to answer the questions given. The questions can be multiple choices or open ended questions. They decide how exactly the analysis of job can be done. This approach is quite effective because people would carefully to put anything in writing without thinking. A questionnaire was given to the employees to determine their opinions on various topics such as Information Technology, hospitality, finance, manufacturing, retail, and defense. The feedback gave a clear view on which areas need to be worked on. Based upon it and a theoretical comprehension of the field of Human resources it became easier to point out the problems that should be discussed on the research and which haven’t been brought to light before. Qualitative research This method of research is a primary source of research. It is exploratory and is used in order to achieve comprehension of fundamental reasons, motivations and opinions. It gives insight to assess the nature of the problem or assist in building of ideas or hypothesis for the secondary research process or quantitative research method. Qualitative research is used also for uncovering of inclinations people’s thoughts or opinions and ponder harder to get to the root of a problem by that. The methods for qualitative data collecting vary according to the form of techniques used.  Whether they are structured or non structured. Conceptual Framework Human resources technology has evolved from the use of paper work and pencil to computers electronic databases and human resource information systems. Internet based technology has played an important role in enabling HR to decrease transactional activities and focus more on playing a strategic role in organizations. The main areas that HRIS system works on are recruitment, employee administration, pension administration, health and safety, data collecting, saving and organizing, compensation and benefits administration, management of the company, employment equity and payroll interface. The functions of HRIS are to create and organize records of employees, reporting of work performances, Hr planning and forecasting, and management of talent, strategic alignment and development of decision power. The role of HR workers has also changed considerably according to advancement of technology. The acquire proficiency now in Human resource technology and its delivery, personal credibility, and vast business knowledge. Current technology will continue to bring advancements in HR performances and will continue to focus on the value that HR brings to an organization. Conclusion The human resource sector has made numerous advances due to technology in the past era and will continue to do so with the changes that are brought by the constant upheaval in the IT world of making things more effective and fast than before. HRIS has made various areas of HR extremely accessible and successful in accordance to the fast paced world of today. The methods of recruiting employees, managerial organization, data storage, training of professionals and more areas have undergone major changes due to the integration of Information Technology in the world of Human Resources. If these changes haven’t been employed and training programs hadn’t been designed to create technological awareness and familiarity it would’ve been a big setback to organizations. It has risen the standards of professionals working in human resources and the organizations have been able to get productivity, creativity, innovation and progress in finances on a whole new  level. HR technology is still going through this evolution of technology as they must use newer and refined methods of generating an organization’s human capital. Human resources would need to continue adopting the latest technological trends in order to keep up with advancements and provide more efficient functions. It will need to use technology to redefine their areas in which they work to derive more productivity. The increment in the usage of portals and intranets and other virtual tools will bring a more great impact on Human resource performance in the near future. Bibliography Storey, J. (Ed.). (2007). Human resource management: A critical text. Cengage Learning EMEA. Ulrich, D. (2013). Human resource champions: The next agenda for adding value and delivering results. Harvard Business Press. Bohlander, G., Snell, S. (2006). Managing human resources. Cengage Learning. Lawler, E. E., Mohrman, S. A. (2003). HR as a strategic partner: what does it take to make it happen?. Human Resource Planning, 26(3), 15-29. Varian, H. R., Farrell, J. V. (2004). The economics of information technology: An introduction. Cambridge University Press. Goo, J., Kishore, R., Rao, H. R., Nam, K. (2009). The Role of Service Level Agreements in Relational Management of Information Technology Outsourcing: An Empirical Study. Mis Quarterly, 33(1).

Sunday, July 21, 2019

Personal Reflection On Infection Control In United Kingdom Nursing Essay

Personal Reflection On Infection Control In United Kingdom Nursing Essay It is highly believed within the health care industry that Healthcare Associated Infections (HCAI) are a grave worry and concern for the public of the United Kingdom (Nunkoo and Pickles 2008). When it is considered that Clostridium Difficile, commonly referred to as C-diff, is a HCAI it is made apparent that the public are greatly aware of this problem due to the fact that a high percentage of people are aware of this infection (Bosanquet 2009). The Healthcare Commission (2005) have also noted their concerns over this problem both the actual problem clinical areas have at the moment and also the potential problems that C-diff actually poses within hospitals a concern that the Department of Health (2009) also holds. These problems are also acknowledged by numerous additional sources who suggest that infection control in itself is required to be heightened in awareness and practice (Jenkinson et al 2006) making it a significant factor within primary care, a statement which is reiterated by the Nursing and Midwifery Council (2006). Due to the significance of this issue the author has chosen to reflect on an incident that she encountered whilst on placement within an acute hospital ward regarding this matter. The author has chosen to reflect on this particular incident she encountered using Johns reflection model (1990) with the intention of accessing, making sense of and learning through a specific experience (Johns 1994). The situation chosen for reflection has been classified by the author as being a critical incident. This claim is due to the fact that the experience resulted in thought provocation. Smith and Jack (2005) agree with this when they claim that a critical incident is an experience that results in individuals thinking about what has happened or indeed what is happening, resulting in the provoking of thought within an individual, just as happened in the authors experience. Description Whilst on placement within an acute hospital I encountered a situation that provoked thoughts and feelings within me alongside a desire to further research the subject. I was on a morning shift and was asked by another staff member to help them with a lady patient in a side room that was being barrier nursed due to her being positive for c-diff. Before entering the room to assist the staff member I washed my hands and put on my apron and gloves and then continued to help the staff nurse with the patient. When the task had been completed I proceeded to take the cardboard liner out of the commode and checked with the staff nurse that I was to leave my protective clothing on whilst leaving the room to go to the sluice and dispose of the patients waste and the cardboard liner. The staff nurse told me that hospital policy stated that I would be right in doing exactly that and therefore I proceeded to do so before removing my protective clothing and washing my hands. REFLECTION For this reflective assignment the author has chosen to use Johns (1990) model of reflection due to the belief that she holds that this will ensure that she is to delve through her rationale for actions and the feelings provoked. With regards to this particular incident the author intends to reflect-on-action so that the experience of the situation can be turned into knowledge therefore providing the oppurtunity of being able to learn from what occurred. Jasper (2003) suggests that this is credible due to the fact that reflecting-on-action as opposed to in-action changes the experience of the individual into knowledge. What is c-diff? what does it do? How often does it occur? In 2007 The Health Protection Agency (2007a) reported that there were over fifty thousand noted cases of c diff that presented within individuals over the age of 65. What is it now What does office of national statistics say HPA claim reduction Who does and who doesnt All hospitals are legally bound to ensure that legislation is followed by all staff something that is stated by numerous differing government led organisations including the Health and Safety Executive (2003) who reiterate the statement made by the Health and Safety at Work Act (1974) that states HOW MANY HOSPITAL TRUST DO THIS? STATISTICS The documents Winning Ways (DH 2003a) and the Matrons Charter (2004) outlined important areas in the control of infection and acted as a catalyst for local action. According to Shuttleworth (2007) local targets have been set to reduce C diff by twenty five per cent by introducing initiatives to improve knowledge, practical skills in infection prevention and control such as guidelines recently updated (Pratt et al 2007) and DHs and National Health Service (NHS) Modernisation Agencys Saving Lives: A Delivery Programme to Reduce Healthcare Associated Infection (2005). The government (DH 2007b) provided tools and resources to embed robust infection prevention endorsed by the HCC (DH 2007c) by publishing Essential steps to safe, clean care that mirrors Saving Lives but is specific to primary care. These are based on standard principles of infection control such as isolating patients and implementing barrier precautions that must be applied routinely to prevent HCAI transmission (Gould 200 9). Defining the role of the nurse is a difficult task however the role the nurse has within infection control measures is that they are responsible for ensuring that policies and procedures are always followed. It is agreed by Health Protection Agency (2007) AND The Royal College of Nursing (2008) that one of these roles of the nurse is to ensure that individual patients that are confirmed to have c-diff are placed in a side room where they have access to their own toileting fascilities. WHY IS THIS. As stated this is the nurses role however this is not always possible to fulfill due to the fact that side rooms are not always available and the actual layout of wards within hospitals often limit the possibilities of individual toilet fascilities HOW DO I KNOW THIS/. WHEN THIS IS NOT POSS WHAT ARE THE RISKS? HOW FAR CAN SPORES TRAVEL? WHO SAYS WHAT ABOUT THIS SITUATION Johnson and Gelding (2004) claim that even after thoroughly cleaning patient areas C-diff spores can still be found a claim that suggests that after a patient is moved out of a sideroom if they had c-diff confirmed whilst they were being nursed in the room even after cleaning the contamination risk is still apparent. WHAT DOES HCC SAY ABOUT THIS? AND ANYONE ELSE? EXPAND THIS. How does cdiff spread? Hands, environment? Air? Hall and Horsley (2007) suggest that c-diff spores can be spread to patients from the environment however it is individuals who visit the hospital not following the requested hand hygiene that is blamed by Banfield and Kerr (2005). WHICH IS IT OR IS IT BOTH WHO SAYS SOME PEOPLE CLAIM THAT THERE ARE NO SPORES IN THE ENVIRONMENT AT ALL BUT WHO HAND WASHING After washing hands they must be completely dried using a paper towel that is then disposed of (Johnson and Gerding 2004) however this is not agreed by Yamaoto et al (2005) who claim that drying washed hands using warm air may well be a more successful way of limiting bacteria that may be on the hands. WHAT DO NICE SAY AND RCN AND DOFH Arguably hand washing can be classified as being one of the important and utmost effective methods of reducing HCAI (Pittet et al 2000). The World Health Organization (2004) holds this to be at the forefront of its Global Patient Safety Challenge something that Gould et al (2007) supports. Hand washing is advised to be done at specific times within situations in a healthcare setting one of which is before and after contact with any patient (Department of Health 2008). The National Institute for Clinical Excellence (2003) support this statement along with numerous additional governing bodies. The Department of Health (2008) continue that when hands are washed they should be done so with soap and water. The rationale behind this method was recommended in 2001 by the Infection Control Nurses Association due to the fact that soap and water supporting the correct technique helps the skin oil layer to be removed which is the one that retains c diff spores. In addition to this it is suggest ed that the hands are dried once again by a specific and rigorous technique which uses a paper towel that is deemed to be disposable (Johnson and Gerding 2004). This claim is not supported by everybody, Yamaoto et al (2005) believe that drying hands with a paper towel is less effective than leaving them to dry by air, suggesting that this technique would minimize the amount of becteria present on the hands. Alcohol gels are nowadays commonly used therefore rendering soap and water as replaced in many situations and environments. Using alcohol gel prior to and post patient contact is a recommendation that NICE (2003) supported with the exception of when hands can be seen to be soiled to the naked eye. NICE (2003) recommend using an alcohol-based hand-rub before and after patient contact, unless hands are visibly soiled of which case then implement liquid soap and water and an effective hand-washing technique. EPIC 2 (DH2007e) support this claim though believe alcohol is not effective against C diff microorganisms and suggests the nurse must consider the need to remove transient and/or resident hand flora. Non-compliance of this suggestion EPIC 2 (DH 2007e) believe presents a direct clinical threat to patients. Wilson (2006), Pellowe et al (2007) believes hand hygiene technique and the principles of infection control are too complex for staff to comply or perhaps too complicated for healthcare professionals to in-cooperate into everyday routine (Yamaoto 2005 et al). Jenkins (2004) recognizes staff hand hygiene is poor and is part of the nurses role (Supported by DH Chief Medical Officer 2002). IS IT LOW STAFFING LEVELS OR WRONGLY PLACED EQUIPMENT OR INDIVIDUAL NURSES ATTITUDES THAT AFFECTS HAND WASHING IT IS PART OF THE NURSES ROLE Jenkins (2004) suggests that hand hygiene of health care staff is not at a high level despite it being part of the nurses role within the hospitalà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦.WHO SAYS IT IS NURSE ROLE The following of stringent infection control policies and regulations often are not carried out which is something that can be due to numerous different factors. Different organisations and individuals put the blame for any lapses in infection control procedures down to different things including the belief that it is the mixture of skills and qualifications that are employed on a ward (Pellowe et al 2007). Additional factors believed to be responsible include the attitudes held by individual staff and the social norms of the actual ward environment (Pellowe et al 2007) however this is not the main influencing factor believed by all. Hugonnet et al (2007) suggest that they are in agreement with the idea of the ward environment playing an important part as they claim that the positioning of equipment for example sinks and cleaning products is something that can increase or decrease infection control guidelines being followed. This in itself is not something that is agreed by the HCC ( 2006) who state that the spread of infection within hospital settings is heightened due to shortage of staff on wards. However, the author believes that if shortage of staff was to blame then poor infection control would be evident on all wards that have this denominator which is not the case. DISPOSABLE GLOVES, APRON It seems that numerous organisations agree that to reduce the risk of cross contamination and infection itself protective clothing should be worn. The government themselves state that disposable aprons and gloves should be worn by all staff when caring for individuals whom are not only confirmed to be infected yet also when they are suspected to be (Department of Health 2007a). This is reiterated by the Royal College of Nursing (2008) who also suggest that this is important in reducing infection. There is some contradiction in beliefs regarding the use of plastic disposable aprons after hand washing with Hateley (2003) suggesting that this prevents any microorganism to clothing transmission, this is reiterated by numerous people including Wilson et al (2007) and HCC (2006). This is not agreed by Babb et al (1983) when they claimed that microorganisms are not completely prevented by the use of these specific aprons however a reduction was believed to occur. Gould (2009) take this one stage further in the suggestion that upon exposure to any excreta aprons should be worn before stringent disposal immediately after exposure, a statement that is supported by NICE (2003). Although there is agreeance between NICE (2003) and Gould (2009) there is no specific specification that denotes when gloves should be changed, be it before leaving the particular isolated environment or after. It is stated that wearing protective clothing of any sorts is not necessary upon the entry into an isolated environment (Gould 2009) however this same author claims that when in practice protective clothing should be worn at all times due to the chance of patients requesting assistance. This somewhat contradicts the first claim that protective clothing is not required when entering high risk areas yet is actually required in general practice upon the pretense that help could be asked for. It can be seen from this that the evidence and recommendations with regards to protective clothing are somewhat confusing at times. Derbyshire County Barrier Precautions Policy (2007) further add to this confusion when they stipulate that before leaving any infected area gloves should be removed suggesting that they should actually be worn in the first place. This policy then continues with a suggestion that any members of staff with any materials needing maceration should indeed change their gloves at just before the point of actually handling the door to the sluice, alongside this they claim that protective clothing should indeed be worn throughout the whole of the task until completion. If Gould (2009) is to be followed then no protective clothing would have been worn in the first place in the isolated area. This confusion only enhances with the addition of clinical waste disposal, something that by admittance by is found to be confusing to members of the healthcare team (Gould 2009). Following the recommendations of Gould (2009) any items for the macerator should be taken directly into the sluice whilst protective clothing is still being worn resulting in immediate disposal in the macerator. The protective gloves and apron is then said to be required to be discarded into correct refuse prior to washing hands. Gould (2009) continues to state that in an ideal world any patients that may be infected with c diff should have one of either their own individual en suite toileting facilities or their own individual commode. The later of these two statements has enhancement from the Department of Health (2008) who state specifically that this commode should not leave the patients room. So clearly from these authors and organisations it can be clearly seen that the evidence and suggestions are indeed confusing. The Royal College of Nursing (2008) claim that when wearing gloves a warm and moist environment is created which in turn leads to the possibility of microorganisms growing in vast numbers. Hateley (2003) reiterates this claim alongside Pratt et al (2007) who suggest that upon glove removal soap and water be used to wash hands as mentioned earlier in this text. When I was tasked with disposing of the infected waste I wanted to ensure that I did so using evidence based practice so as to minimize, if not completely eradicate, any risk of cross contamination whilst taking the waste from one area to another where the macerator was based. I was aware of the potential risk of contaminating the environment along the corridors of the ward and did not want to do this and put other patients and staff at risk therefore I needed to question my practice. The contents of the bed pan could have spilled on the floor or the paper towels which would have resulted in spores being released into the surrounding environment. I did consider using my elbow to open the door handle in the patients room and the one leading to the sluice yet came to the realization that this could have resulted in spillage onto either myself or the surrounding environment. O Callaghan (2005) stated that any challenge that nursing practice may receive could possibly add to any changes to policies and or practice regarding infection control procedures and barrier nursing. If Mohanna and Chambers (2001) is to be believed then risk management can be deemed to be an integral factor within clinical governance. Throughout this experience I did hold an awareness of the principles of barrier nursing. This led me to challenge this specific wards policies on the best practice for taking the bed pan from the patients room to the sluice. When I walked down the corridor with only paper towels covering the bed pan I was aware of the possibility that I may well have been spreading c diff spores. This could have had huge implications for all within the surrounding environment. Upon opening the door handles I was more than aware that my gloves had a high risk of being contaminated yet there was nothing I could do to eliminate this. My feelings at the time, are as they still are, ones of hypocrisy. I felt slightly shamed at the fact that I lacked the knowledge to stand and challenge the policy in a greater depth. INFLUENCING FACTORS. One of the first influencing factors of this situation was the recognition that the ward, its patients and staff were intitled to the very best of care. The NMC code of conduct (2008) state that all nursing staff have a duty of care. Within this very code it is stipulated that nursing staff hold a role that means they are expected to prevent patients from infection and protect them at all times. It also stipulates that nurses have a professional duty which includes providing evidence based practice and care that is up to date. The whole scenario was obviously one that would cause the patient to lose their dignity thereofr eI was more than aware of the need to dispose of the excreta immediately and safely. This dignity was what I was trying to protect when covering the bed pan with the paper towels, something that has been agreed as ethically right and correct practice by Timby (1996) alongside the Department of Health (2003b). Not only is this noted as being best practice within the circumstances yet also practice that would provide a reduction within the chance of spillage, therefore I was showing risk management skills. COULD I HAVE DEALT WITH THE SITUATION BETTER? In hindsight I feel that the confusion I encountered at the time of the incident could have been avoided had I had made myself aware of the wards policies on infection control and barrier nursing at the beginning of my placement. Other than this I think that I handled the situation well by questioning what I was being asked to do, however I wish I had held the knowledge that I have gained through this reflection prior to the experience. If I had then maybe I could have foreseen the situation arising and possibly found a solution to a potential problem instead of being confused by an actual problem. In addition to this one thing that I realize I did not do yet could well have done is to have used alcohol gel after washing my hands. This could have reduced the risk of cross contamination further (RCN 2008) which could have resulted in easing my concerns slightly. LEARNING. Numerous issues still remain with regards to infection control and infection prevention however this experience resulted in my awareness of the subject matter being raised. Prior to this experience I encountered I was unaware of factors that potentially predispose individuals to infection. Disease is not always caused by c diff when it is present in the bowel, it is only when bowel flora is changed from being deemed to be normal that disease occurs. This alteration of normal bowel flora can potentially be caused by specific antibiotics, a claim that has had wide spread support throughout the past twenty plus years (Lyerly et al 1988, McFarland et al 1989, Association of Medical Microbiologists 1998, DH 2007a ). Despite my actions being that of best practice within the specific trusts policy I appreciate that isolating any patient into an individual room of their own so as to decrease the risk of cross contamination. However it has to be considered that c diff spores are never truly eradicated completely from the environment. In compliance with evidence based practice guidelines (2009) I ensured that I washed my hands correctly prior to going into the patients room and also wore protective clothing. I placed two disposable paper towels over the bed pan liner due to my awareness that to get to the macerator I would have to walk down the corridor of the ward. I believe that covers for these cardboard liners should always be supplied and used. However upon searching for such a product I could not find any such thing. This is still not an idealistic solution as the risk of spillage would still remain therefore in an ideal world, as suggested earlier, all patients should have their own toileting facilities. So as to resolve the confusion of opening door handles with gloves that pose the risk of contamination it could be suggested that doors within ward environments be handle free. This would limit the contamination risk however the handle on the macerator would also need to be redesigned so as to enable that t oo to be touch free, from hands at least. This suggestion is something that the Department of Health (2008) could be argued to support due to the fact that they claimed to be researching touch free designs for specific equipment. Hand washing and protective clothing can be deemed to be a priority within the spread of c diff yet from the research and literature reviewed within this assignment it is clear that some confusion is apparent, probably steming from the noted contradictions. This experience of a critical incident enthused reflection as explored by the use of Carpers (1978) methods and ways of knowing, namely personal, ethical, aesthetic and empirical. The thorough acknowledgement of these patterns is claimed to expand not only the bredth of understanding yet also the expansion of personal thinking beyond specific approaches (Ashburner 1996). Upon placing paper towels over the bed pan the patients dignity and privacy was maintained, alongside professionalism being shown. Factors that are not only thoughtful yet also a part of the NMCs code (2008). Throughout the experience I was led by the theoretical knowledge that I had gained throughout the journey of my life. Moral decision making is said to be solely focused upon what should actually be done within a specific scenario or situation (Davis 1995). Prior to my reflection upon this practice I was not fully aware of the rational for my actions and the theory that underpinned it however I acted as I did through, as stated above, my knowledge and moral decision making. Using the reflection model of Johns (1990) guided me through an exploration of numerous and varied differing knowledge sources that led my individual actions. My whole level of understanding and awareness of infection control within healthcare settings has been raised which in turn will heighten my confidence within the subject matter for the future. This assignment has noted differing cultures within ward settings and policies that lead to contradictions and often confusion. Despite this numerous attributes that I personally hold have been credited and become aware to myself; including critical thinking and problem solving which has allowed me to explore a thought process that led to alternatives to current practice being explored. One of arguably the most important realizations I have gained from this reflection upon practice is that healthcare workers within any setting all play a part within infection control. It has been suggested that hand hygiene, namely hand washing, prior to dealing with any patient and again afterwards is at the heart of infection control (Storr et al 2005). Alongside this and the previously mentioned infection control procedures I believe that the policies and their appliance within day to day practice is indeed the key. Despite all my fore mentioned research into this subject I am left wondering and concerned that even if all staff members follow their specific policies, due to confusion within the literature a risk of cross contamination, resulting in the spread of c diff, will still be present.

Saturday, July 20, 2019

Against Abortion Essay -- Abortion Against Pro-Life Essays Argumentati

Against Abortion   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Why is it that by 21 days into the fetal development the baby's heart begins to beat, but yet in most people's eyes the baby is still not 'technically' alive' That heart beat means nothing, it doesn't represent a human person whom God has created in his own image and has had a plan for that baby ever since the beginning of time. To most people that statement isn?t allowing women and their families freedom of choice. And yet that baby isn't given any say in its freedom to live. This paper will give many supporting statistics towards the right to life, I am pro-life.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  *Forty-nine percent of pregnancies among American women are unintended, half of these are terminated by an abortion. Each year, two out of every one hundred women aged fifteen- forty-four have an abortion, forty-eight percent of them have had at least one previous abortion and sixty-one percent have had a previous birth. This means that these women understand the joy of a baby being born, and still choose to take away their privilege to live. They?ve carried this children before and know the happiness of seeing their own healthy child in their arms for the first time. Why then, when they know they are creating new life inside of them, choose to deprive their child the right to live and experience everything life has to offer. They willingly decide to kill that child, certainly for their own benefit.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Each year, an estimated forty-six million abortions occur worldwide. Of these, twenty million procedures are obtained illegally.* Why are there stories on the news everyday of people being murdered and mistreated and the culprit being sent to jail of punished in some way for the crime they?ve committed. Yet I don?t think I?ve ever heard on the news of a women being sent to jail for the murder of her unborn baby. It?s still illegal, it?s the murder of a child, they are given no freedom, and the mother goes unpunished. *On average, women give at least three reasons for choosing abortion; 3/4 say that having a baby would interfere with work, school or other responsibilities; about 2/3 say they can?t afford a child; and 1/2 say they don?t want to be a single parent or are having problems with their husband or partner. A baby would interfere with their ?responsibilities?, one of the biggest responsibilities as a sexually active person is to use c... to make a difference too, but the Supreme Court won?t allow him to. Partial-birth abortion is banned in certain states in the United States, its a horrible image to put in someone's head. However, some of the pictures I've seen really make people wonder how someone could destroy human life like that. Abortion all together should be banned, but some people are more pro-choice than pro-life. Senator John Kerry is pro-choice, if he is elected president there is virtually no hope in the end of abortion, and Roe v. Wade. President Bush is at least attempting to change the law, but is constantly being stuck down. John Kerry will do nothing in our country to stop the murder of unborn children. His concern is in Iraq, where a few people are dying each day, while every third baby conceived in America is killed by an abortion. Kerry wants to raise taxes for the wealthy, I wonder how they would feel about this tax raise knowing that some of it could be contributing to the murder of an unborn child. If Kerry wins the election basically all hope of ending abortion is crushed for another four years. Our worry won?t be on the Supreme Court, it will be on our pro-choice President.

A Streetcar Named Desire - The Importance of Scene 6 Essay -- Streetca

A Street Car Named Desire - The Importance of Scene 6   Ã‚   Scene 6 is a poignant part of 'A Street Car Named Desire' and only contains the characters Mitch and Blanche. The scene begins with the impression that Blanche and Mitch have not enjoyed the evening that they have just spent together at a local carnival. Blanches voice and manner is described as being " the utter exhaustion which only a neurasthenic personality can know." Mitch is described as being "stolid but depressed." Mitch even admits "I'm afraid you haven't gotten much fun out of this evening Blanche." and "I felt all the time that I wasn't giving you much-entertainment."   At this point in the scene the viewer gets the impression that Mitch and Blanche are not compatible and as it continues we get the impression that Blanche and Mitch are very unlikely Bedfellows.    As the scene progresses the likelihood of Blanche and Mitch becoming an item oscillates. The chances begin low and begin to decline but by the end of the scene chances become extremely high. This happens as a result of Blanche's flirtatious character and in the confidence levels Mitch portrays in his conversation.    At the beginning of scene 6 Blanche and Mitch are not presented as being compatible or to have much have any chemistry between them. Blanche is an educated woman with an aristocratic upbringing where as Mitch is uneducated and working class. We can observe how Blanche is flirtatiously playing the 'hard to get game' (e.g. using words such as 'honey') and appears to be very confident and experienced when dealing with men. Mitch on the other hand does not seem so confident or experienced, nervously asking, "Can I - uh-kiss you - goodnight?"      W... ...a significant difference between the two. There is far less physical attraction between Blanche and Mitch and more of a need for companionship, love, and sincerity.   As the play continues and we watch how Stanley slowly destroys Blanche, the question "Does physical brute force, such as that of Stanley, overpower and dominate over the non-physical emotional force such as that of Blanche?" This scene and comparison of the two relationships aids this argument.    Works Cited Spoto, Donald. The Kindness of Strangers. Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1985. Szeliski, John T. von.   Twentieth Century Interpretations of A Streetcar Named Desire. "Tennessee Williams and the Tragedy of Sensitivity".   Ed.   Jordan Y. Miller.   New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, 1971. Williams, Tennessee.   A Streetcar Named Desire.   Stuttgart: Phillip Reclam, 1988.      

Friday, July 19, 2019

Blood Revenge In Julius Caesar :: essays research papers

“Et tu Brute?'; Caesar sputtered before falling into the darkness known as death. But this was not the end of Caesar however. Caesar returns to this world as a “shade'; or ghost form. In fact, in this form he exerts more influence over Brutus than he ever did in mortal form. “Caesar is more powerful in his spirit for to affect Brutus than in his mortal form. It is in this ghost form, Caesar full-fills his revenge on Brutus.'; ( Revenge did not occur in the ancient world only in plays and stories. Revenge was a way of life, an every day belief of the ancient times.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  In ancient times, the times of the Greeks and Romans to be precise, the inhabitants believed that death was most certainly not the end. As a matter of fact, many of these people built entire religions around the prospect of life after death, such as the Greeks and the Romans. A strong belief of the Greeks was that the ghost or “shade'; was so extremely powerful that “many a time the murderer would mutilate his victim to flee the dead man’s direct revenge.'; (B-Revenge)   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Another strong belief in the idea of blood-revenge centered around native gods. The people of the time believed that the gods played an important role in blood-revenge, especially if one of their laws were defied. In the Odyssey, Zeus and Athena intervene on Odysseus’ behalf when Odysseus wishes to destroy the suitors that had plagued his palace for a number of years. Zeus intervenes after his sacred policy, his policy of hospitality, was violated and for that the suitors were punished. In Julius Caesar, there is no evidence of any specific gods interfering, such as dialogue or actions, but there are many supernatural occurrences. These omens show that something supernatural, be it a god or fate, knows what is going to occur in the near future. Therefore, the omens show evidence of god-like activity foreshadowing, either warning or maybe even sponsoring, the revenge.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  For every sin committed there is an unavoidable consequence, as is the case when the conspirators try to harness the future. Even though Brutus’ actions are noble, no one can ever hope to control history, those who try suffer a terrible fate. “Caesar, Brutus, and Cassius are all guilty of arrogance in believing they can control history; as a consequence, Caesar precipitates his own death and the other two merit the retribution that overtakes them.

Thursday, July 18, 2019

Work Related Learning By Blended Learning Education Essay

Today, it is widely accepted by universities and employers that those pupils who gain work experience and maximize their acquisition from it are lending strongly both to their surveies and to their employability. This faculty will supply you with the chance to critically measure your working patterns in footings of direction manner ; leading ; alteration ; and working relationships and associate these to your ain experiences with a position to informing your personal development and your future calling.1.1 Module purposesThe purposes of the faculty are to enable pupils to: – addition maximal personal development benefit from their work experience through a series of brooding and peer acquisition activities ; – measure their work experience in footings of their subject particular cognition to widen their apprehension of the concern universe application of their schoolroom surveies.2.0 Learning results of the faculty2.1 Knowledge and UnderstandingSuccessful pupils will typically: critically assess direction manners and leading and how this affects the person in the workplace ; analyse barriers to and effectual patterns in constructing working relationships ; apply theoretical accounts of brooding pattern for personal development ; appreciate alteration, its beginnings and impact.2.1 Skills and PropertiesSuccessful pupils will typically be able to: reflect critically on ain acquisition and accomplishments in relation to personal and calling development ; demonstrate good developed societal and movable interpersonal accomplishments. critically observe direction manners and leading with a position to informing ain hereafter pattern.3.0 What learning methods are used on this faculty?The faculty is delivered through seminars delivered locally and through a one-hour hebdomadal presentation supported by Powerpoint slides and explanatory notes, posted up on StudyNet. The talks introduce you to theoretical tools and constructs together with practical direction illustrations. You are expected to develop your apprehension of both theory and pattern by independent reading and self contemplation utilizing the broad scope of e-book and electronic diary resources referred to in the talk and seminar support notes. These resources can be accessed through your StudyNet portal. Seminars will take topographic point locally each hebdomad associating to a unit of acquisition. In progress of each seminar, pupils will utilize the information provided in this faculty usher and subsequent updates to place the relevant unit and seminar stuff and prepare replies in progress to the inquiries scheduled for treatment on the twenty-four hours. Students will work through the electronically available readings developing their ain responses to the seminar treatment inquiry by using the theoretical cognition and practical apprehension they have gained through survey of employment patterns, relevant talks and readings. When they arrive at the seminar, the local coach will ease their treatment of the seminar inquiry. It is expected that different ways of replying each inquiry will go apparent. Through this experience, pupils are expected to intensify their apprehension of the cardinal function played by arguments and dissensions in the procedure measuring issues. Students are active participants and subscribers to the faculty and its success. They are required to go familiar with the content of the chief texts and to research and read around the topic as the faculty progresses. Seminar readying is an indispensable portion of the acquisition procedure and pupils should anticipate to pass several hours in readying for each hebdomad. They are required to pull on cognition of their work experience and from other concern subjects whilst developing their apprehension through researching administrations, industries and instance surveies of emerging factors. As the faculty develops, through their active engagement, pupils should derive some consciousness of how the pupils and staff may be viewed as a acquisition system and develop self-reflective accomplishment set.Faculty agendaThe faculty is divided into 11 units of acquisition ( hebdomad 12 should be used for contemplation and alteration ) . For each unit of larning the followers will be supplied: Materials aˆÂ ¦aˆÂ ¦aˆÂ ¦these will be a series of electronically available readings with narrative adhering the readings together in chase of the acquisition results, selected chapters from e-books with associating narrative. Presentation aˆÂ ¦aˆÂ ¦..this will represent up to one hr of ‘lecture ‘ which will probably utilize PowerPoint slides with a voice over. These may be enhanced by the usage of picture cartridge holders, intelligence infusions and web based stuff Seminar aˆÂ ¦aˆÂ ¦aˆÂ ¦aˆÂ ¦.this will include a series of seminar subjects which you are required to fix to reply in the seminar. The local coach will move as a facilitator and advisor to the seminar. Activity aˆÂ ¦aˆÂ ¦aˆÂ ¦..this is extra to the seminar and will be used to look into for pupil cognition and apprehension. Detailss of these will be linked to each larning unit and will be released each hebdomad. It will be used to look into pupil cognition and apprehension.Module agenda – Unit of measurements of LearningPresentations in the signifier of talks will give an overview of a learning unit. Seminars will research subjects in greater deepness and concentrate on the subjects given below. This will include ; reenforcing cardinal constructs and theories ; comparing different positions and reexamining theoretical and empirical stuff that may be applied to your work topographic point experience. The accent in seminars is on pupil engagement and the treatment will be based on the readying and reading that has been undertaken by pupils. All talks and learning stuffs will be on StudyNet. Any notices, proclamations or alterations of agreements will be posted on StudyNet and hence the site must be checked on a regular footing.5.0 Weekly programmeThe faculty unit subjects are listed below. Module units: Introduction Contemplation Administrations – Structures, Forms and Processes Management and Leadership Teams Organizational Change Pull offing Change Pull offing Conflict Coaching Giving and Receiving Feedback Career Development The hebdomadal Learning Materials ; Presentations ; Seminars ; and Activities will be produced in due class.5.0 Assessment DetailssThe intent of the appraisal for this faculty is to prove whether, and to what extent, you have reached the acquisition results for the faculty. It is of import that you know early what the appraisal diet is and what is expected of you. Assessment standards stipulate what it is that you will be assessed against, and what, in general footings, you will necessitate to show in your assessed work in order to accomplish the specified classs. The appraisal for this faculty is 100 % coursework-based. It consists of two pieces of coursework ; an separately prepared study ( 70 % ) and an individually presentation ( 30 % ) .a ) Assignment 1 – Report ( 70 % )Individually, you are asked to fix a written study of 3,500 words showing an consciousness of the cognition, accomplishments and experience envisaged of a recent alumnus from this programme to come in an country of graduate employment. The research and self-reflection required to fix the study will back up you in your future calling planning and determinations and the passage to future chances after your undergraduate surveies. The overall purpose of the assignment is to supply you with the chance to: demonstrate consciousness of the different types of alumnus chances i.e. alumnus preparation strategies, professional callings, chances with Small and Medium size Enterprises ( SME ) etc ; provide grounds of how to research these chances i.e. resources available and contemplation on the usage of these ; develop an consciousness of the accomplishments, cognition and experiences Graduate Employers are looking for and how these are altering ; show the function of ego consciousness and contemplation in Career Development activities ; fix a CV /covering missive as a generic calling direction tool to take you frontward during your calling ; develop a clear Career Development Plan as a consequence of sing your current cognition, accomplishments and experiences against the demands you have researched. You will have farther information sketching the demands of the assignment along with back uping resources, one time the faculty starts. There will be hebdomadal online treatment on the appraisal as the subjects of the faculty are explored ( and linked to the appraisal ) . The study should include the undermentioned subdivisions: Section 1 – Occupational Research ( about 50- 60 % of word count ) . The first subdivision of the study should be as a factual contemplation of the findings from the business or country of graduate employment you have chosen to research. This should be written in the 3rd individual and include full â€Å" Harvard referencing † to all beginnings of information used ( inside informations of how to cite all types of resources is available on the Academic Skills Unit site in the ASU Guide to Harvard Referencing – see StudyNet ) . The undermentioned headers should be used this subdivision: Footings of mention – What are you puting out to research and study on i.e. Graduate chances in the Tourism sector Methodology – How did you near transporting out your research? What beginnings of information did you utilize? Include both secondary resources i.e. studies, web sites, employment statistics, company literature ; and primary research ; talking with current alumnuss, reaching employers. ( Note: You are required to finish and subject the Graduate Employment Resources checklist as an appendices to back up this subdivision ) Main Findings – this should include the cardinal information sing this business or country of employment in footings of: General Employment trends in this sector / business: the employment market by and large in this country, recent developments, predicted future tendencies. Opportunities for recent alumnuss – what administrations are enrolling alumnuss in this country of employment? What types of function would a recent alumnus be making? Where are they advertised? The accomplishments / cognition and experience required – a drumhead based on research of a lower limit of 6 different administrations of the cardinal accomplishments / cognition and experience expected from an applier at this phase in their calling How are graduates selected in the administrations you have researched? – what are the enlisting and choice methods being used? How are you expected to show your accomplishments / cognition / experience? Graduate Employment Resources checklist – you are asked to finish this papers ( available on faculty site ) , to show that you have reflected on the value of the different resources used during your research. This will be utile for you when you do farther research related to your calling planning in the hereafter. You should finish this at the terminal of your research and before get downing subdivision 2 Section 2 – Personal analysis, CV / Covering missive readying, â€Å" spread analysis † , and Career Action program – this subdivision is where you look at your current accomplishments, cognition and experience against those highlighted by your research in subdivision 1. This portion of the study should be written in the first individual as it is a personal contemplation. The suggested headers to be used in this subdivision are: Personal analysis – a general reappraisal of your current accomplishments, cognition and experience, foregrounding in peculiar those that came up in your research. CV & A ; Covering missive – Preparation of a CV and covering missive to use for a alumnus degree place in the country of your research, based on your current state of affairs. Gap Analysis – this subdivision is where you look at your ain personal analysis against the demands identified in your research. The purpose is to foreground countries to concentrate your personal development about. Reflect on the undermentioned countries: what countries do you miss grounds in? where do you necessitate farther illustrations / grounds in your applications? Where do you experience weak in your overall application? Career Action Plan – Once you have identified the countries you need to concentrate on, you are asked to fix a Career action program which addresses both the personal development and specific calling related activities you will set about to take you frontward. This should be written out in full i.e. a paragraph on each country in the first individual, and you should explicate the actions and what you hope to derive from them. This should include the cognition, accomplishments and experiences you need to foster develop i.e. commercial consciousness ; and specific activities to back up you through the choice procedure i.e. interview accomplishments, doing presentations etc. Both through your ain research, and utilizing the information heard during the talk Sessionss about resources and support available, you should come up with clear actions with timescales. You should demo the resources you will utilize to travel the country of development forward and the timescales you will fi nish these in. A drumhead papers should be attached as an appendix. Conclusion – written in the first individual, a brief contemplation on how you feel holding completed the overall exercising, and how you intend to utilize the Career Action Plan. Section 3 – Mentions and bibliography – see Academic Skills Unit Report Writing guide notes and Harvard citing papers for counsel. Both are available on StudyNet.