Monday, September 30, 2019

Rhetorical Analysis of the Confessions of Nat Turner Essay

In The Confessions of Nat Turner, Thomas R. Gray attempted to provide the public with a better understanding of â€Å"the origin and progress of this dreadful conspiracy, and the motives which influences its diabolical actors† (Gray, 3). Gray hoped to replace â€Å"a thousand idle, exaggerated and mischievous reports† with a single, authoritative account of the event. To do so, he had to establish that the confession was voluntary, that the transcript was accurate, and that Turner was telling the truth. As for the sincerity and truthfulness of the prisoner, Gray said he cross-examined Turner and found his statement corroborated by the confessions of other prisoners and other circumstances. While he claims that these confessions were recorded â€Å"with little or no variation†, Gray’s verbose introduction addressed to the public was intended to frame Turner and as a psychotic villain that was rightfully punished for his unlawful acts against society. In an effort to make Turner appear more sinister, Gray described Turner as being â€Å"a gloomy fanatic revolving in the recesses of his own dark, bewildered, and overwrought mind, schemes of indiscriminate massacre to the whites† (Gray, 3). Though he may not have been as vicious as Gray portrayed him to be, the description was meant to â€Å"to bring its object into a field of vision, to make that object ‘speak’ for itself convincingly and to give it form, character, and tone† (Browne, 319). This horrific image of Turner was intended to shape the minds of the public in such a way that their minds would be made up before even reaching turners actual confessions. Browne points out that â€Å"by assuring the reader of the text’s veracity†¦ and by designating the monstrous motives that drove him to such deeds, Gray prefigures not only the narrative to follow but establishes the readers’ preferred stance toward it†, which given the events is a negative one (Browne, 319). The authenticity of this document is something to be contested. As a lawyer working on Turner’s case and a supporter of slavery, Gray probably did not feel compelled to present Turner’s motives and description of the insurrection. Gray appears to portray Turner in a way intended both to ease the insurrection’s impact and to aid in the conviction of turner for his actions. He argues that the revolt was an isolated event solely fueled by Turner’s religious extremism and not retaliation against the institution of slavery. Even though Turners situation was a unique one, slave owners at the time had to recognize the potentiality for violence iven â€Å"the peculiar mix of social, psychological, and racial tensions shaping life on the antebellum plantation thus required a certain logic with which threats to that way of life might be explained† (Browne, 316). In an effort to make the pamphlet even more persuasive, Gray makes another very interesting move. He claims that, â€Å"without being questioned at all, Turner commenced his narrative in the following words† (Gray, 5). By stating this, it is implied that Turner gave his accounts of that night freely and honestly and that Gray transcribed Turner’s story word for word. The text of the â€Å"confession† also suggests that neither of these statements is actually accurate. While nothing about the narrative suggests that Gray forced Turner into telling his story, Gray structures the narrative put an emphasis on Turner’s religious convictions and the revolt’s malicious violence, which portrayed Turner as being violently vengeful. Another interesting thing about the â€Å"confessions† is the speaking style Gray claims Turner’s confessed the events of the insurgence in. Though Turner was an educated slave, the voice portrayed in the text is of someone with a more superior education. The wording and overall structure used to describe the events may very well have been those of Gray, who held a law degree. The first line, supposedly spoken by Turner reads, â€Å"Sir you have asked me to give a history of the motives which induced me to undertake the late insurrection, as you call it† (Gray, 5). The obvious inconsistency between the voice supposedly speaking and the actual language used in this document lessens its authenticity. Even though the accounts in this confession may not be completely accurate, Gray’s transcriptions represent Turner as being firmly religious. Rather than simply describing the events of the insurrection as they happened, the narrative delved deeper into Turner’s character. The confessions begin with a description of events from Turner’s childhood that, according to Gray, led him to believe that he destined to fulfill a prophecy. Turner described himself as â€Å"uncommonly intelligent for a child† (Gray, 6). He claims to have learned to read with no assistance, and he says that religion â€Å"principally occupied my thoughts† (Gray, 5). He also says that he had a natural talent for planning and leadership, so that, even when he was a child, the other black children expected him to plan their â€Å"roguery† because of his â€Å"superior judgment† (Gray, 5). A series of divine occurrences in Turner’s childhood confirmed his belief that he was â€Å"intended for some great purpose† and that he would â€Å"surely be a prophet† (Gray, 5). He was influenced by those closest to him, including his father and mother â€Å"strengthened him† in the belief of his divine gift, along with his grandmother, â€Å"who was very religious† (Gray, 5). Turner was instructed to await the appearance of a sign in the heavens before communicating his â€Å"great work† to any others. According to Gray, an â€Å"eclipse of the sun in February† inspired Turner to confide in four fellow slaves: Henry, Hark, Nelson, and Sam. â€Å"It was intended by us to have begun the work of death on the 4th July last† (Gray, 7). Gray, who claimed to have had little influence on Turner’s narration, asked him at one point if he did not find himself â€Å"mistaken† now that the prophecy which he had been called upon to fulfill ended in tragedy. Turner reportedly answered, â€Å"Was not Christ crucified? † These â€Å"confessions† were intended to create a powerful, yet vicious, image of Turner and his reasons for initiating such a devastating. Gray’s description of his own apprehensions while transcribing Turners confession was intended to demonstrate the insurrection’s effect on slave owners at the time. Gray vividly describes Turner’s unrelenting nature as, â€Å"The calm, deliberate composure with which he spoke of his late deeds and intentions, the expression of his fiend-like face when excited by enthusiasm, still bearing the stains of the blood of helpless innocence about him; clothed with rags and covered with chains; yet daring to raise his manacled hands to heaven, with a spirit soaring above the attributes of man; I looked on him and my blood curdled in my veins† (Gray, 11). Gray’s chilling reaction to Turner’s confession suggests the type of panic this document created amongst white’s slaveholders throughout various parts of the United States. Given the evidence, Gray’s representation of Turner is far from accurate. Gray used Turner’s voice to serve his own agenda, which was to ease the impact if the insurrections and to reaffirm slave owners as to why slavery is justifiable.

Sunday, September 29, 2019

My favorite place Essay

My favorite place is Starbucks. So I will choose that to be the company I will write about for this assignment. Starbucks Corporation has been able to grow revenues from $11.7B to $13.3B. Most impressively, the company has been able to reduce the percentage of sales devoted to selling, general and administrative costs from 37.08% to 35.38%. This was a driver that led to a bottom line growth from $1.2B to $1.4B. The pertinent statistics for this piece are as follows. During 2012 Starbucks maintained a current ratio of 1.9x. In 2012, their quick ratio was 1.1x. Their debt ratio in 2012 is 10.7x, derived from total assets in 2012 of 4,199.6 with total debt being 3,104.7. I would make the assessment that Starbucks is financially sound. Their net income for 2012 was 3,104.7 whereas it was 1,245.7 in 2011. This is a remarkable incline. This rise is do to the economy rising. This company’s debt to total capital ratio, at 9.70%, is in-line with the Hotels, Restaurants and Leisure industry’s norm. Additionally, there are enough liquid assets to satisfy current obligations. Accounts Receivable are typical for the industry, with 11.94 days worth of sales outstanding. Last, Starbucks Corporation is among the most efficient in its industry at managing inventories. The company only has 69.11 days of its Cost of Goods Sold tied up in inventory, although the Inventory Processing Period has been grown consistently over the last 4 years.

Saturday, September 28, 2019

Concepts of Federalism in Public Policy Making Essay

Concepts of Federalism in Public Policy Making - Essay Example From the concept of federalism have come various other schools of thought, which have culminated into sub concepts in their own right. One of these is the concept of dual federalism according to which the best option before any government or nation is to organize itself into separate yet equal branches of government so as to divide the state and national government in various spheres of functioning and significance. According to this, the state government may exercise sovereignty within its own boundaries while the national level authorities will be slated to have exclusive and enumerated powers. Another concept that has branched out from federalism is that of cooperative federalism. According to this school of thought, the best course of action is to establish a strong network of consumer cooperative societies through which cooperative wholesale societies will be formed in order to undertake the purchase of farms and factories. According to federal cooperatives, the proceeds and profits thereof would be paid as dividends to the member cooperatives instead of the workers. Having studied the various aspects of federalism, it would be imperative to state that the public policy making process is greatly influenced by the concept of federalism.

Friday, September 27, 2019

Liberian Production and Export of Rubber and Economic Growth Term Paper

Liberian Production and Export of Rubber and Economic Growth - Term Paper Example Economic and productive activities collapsed as looting and vandalism became the norm. GDP and GNP fell by over 90% in less than two decades (Radalach). This was reversed by the inception of Ellen Johnson Sir leaf as the President in January 2006.Since then the country has been in peace and great achievements have been made in the economic recovery especially in the agricultural sector, mining industries, infrastructural growth and education among others. Agriculture has been the biggest sector in the economy of Liberia with rubber being the main cash crop for export. The current government has introduced policies to foster peace, launch reconstruction and development, and build strong systems for governance and democracy. (Daft) The most important issues for Liberia’s continued growth and prosperity and unity for peace is through the establishment of the foundation for rapid, inclusive, and sustainable economic growth. The government has established the implementation of poli cies plan aimed at both political stability and inclusive economic recovery that are mutually reinforcing, and that to sustain development over time, it has embarked on rebuilding institutions and physical infrastructure and invest in human capacity through strong health and education programs. Its initial strategy following the inauguration was articulated in its â€Å"First 150-Day Action Plan,† describing the steps that both the government and the donor community would participate in during the period from January and June 2006. This was coupled with the development of an Interim Poverty Reduction Strategy, this was finalized in 2007 and its purpose was to cover the period from late 2006 through mid-2008. The government is furthering this by working on the modalities of poverty reduction strategies that covered the period between 2008 and 2010. All three of these strategies are organized around a framework with four basic pillars. †¢ Expanding peace and security. â₠¬ ¢ Revitalizing economic activity †¢ Strengthening governance and the rule of law †¢ Rebuilding infrastructure and providing basic services The governments financial situation and limited personnel been has increased the governments need for the international support since the international community would play a big role in Liberia’s reconstruction through resource mobilization and manpower for the growth of the country. As a result the government at an early stage has introduced mechanism to closely monitor the donor activities. The new Liberian government is working on a different model that ensures effective coordination and consistent approaches both between the government and the donors and across government agencies. It is establishing a structure in which the decisions are made by a small group, chaired by the government rather than a donor that could execute decisions more quickly and easily. It also wants an administrative structure that is consistent wit h the substantive structure of growth and development of agriculture and other pillars of the economy. The government is working to involve the entire population so that the country’s population is involved in the employment of youths to avoid the return of Liberia’s conflict as a result of political and economic exclusion of large segments of society that characterized the countries previous unrests. Land and property

Thursday, September 26, 2019

The Different Aspects of Heroism in Animation Assignment

The Different Aspects of Heroism in Animation - Assignment Example Taking the case of Ashitaka (Princess Mononoke, 1997) a film directed by renowned animator Hayao Miyazaki, it can be seen that there is a clash of nature versus humanity. Ashitaka is the main character who has to treat dangerous grounds in an effort to save the community. The animated version of the film shows Ashitaka killing the demon but does not go unscathed as his right arm is corrupted with a curse and he has a long journey into the Great Forest Spirit to get help (Beane 5). The ensuing battle between Princess Mononoke and a mining village requires a courageous and industrial person to save the situation. This film presents Japanese cultural definition of heroism as an ability to wade through evil, save lives and remain self-less in defence of the society as seen in Ashitaka’s dedication to rebuilding Iron town in his last interaction with San and Eboshi. In Sylvain (Gandahar, 1988) the Queen Ambisextra and the Council of Women believe in warrior Sylvain as the ultimate saviour of the kingdom against the Machine-Men. In this cultural setup, the courage to face supernatural beings in the form of metals is considered heroic. Sylvain is a great warrior and from the animated version, is wit of incorporating the mutant beings called the Deformed (physically deformed, but mentally and spiritually advanced) and by a beautiful woman named Airelle. Considering his ability to strategize on a way of completely eliminating these metal creatures is exhibited through creative animation that exposes his heroism at the end of the encounter (Beane 9). The animated presentation of Peter (Peter and the Wolf, 2006) is entertaining and informative as it explores an exciting show of heroism by Peter against the much hated and dreaded wolf. The film has a combination that is attractive to children and captivating to music enthusiasts. Peter’s ability to unwit the wolf, tie and prevent the hunters from killing it is a show of true hero.  

Wednesday, September 25, 2019

Reflaction essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Reflaction - Essay Example he semester and from the number of essays I have written to meet the above objective, it is evident that my writing skills have gradually improved, and have partially met my objective of writing perfect mistake free essays, though there are still a few areas that need more efforts and improvement. One of the improvements that I have made this semester in effective writing is the ability to narrow down my thoughts to specific and narrow issue, which allows better coverage of the topic. In the water shortage essay that I wrote, I managed to narrow down the topic in addressing the problem of water shortage, specifically in Tucson, Arizona. Narrow topics are easier to cover and present ideas concretely rather than dealing with a broad topic that may not be addressed to a good degree of material coverage (Ferris and Hedgecock, 40). Another major improvement in the course of the semester is ability to formulate a narrow thesis to guide my essay in proper and systematic presentation of ideas. For example, in this essay, my thesis was based on issues that may lead to shortage of fresh water specifically in Tucson, which is a narrow area of coverage, and a specific objective that guided me in the entire essay as required in effective writing. Another improvement that I have made in writing skills in the course the semester is in using data to support my ideas, which gives concise information on the extent of problem being addressed. For example, in the essay in have noted that only 2.5% of water may be considered fresh water, and out of this, only 0.88% of fresh water is available for use to man currently. Such statistics and others as used throughout the essay makes the essay to be more authoritative in portraying the extent of the problem being addressed, which might not be perceived through the use of plain text in presenting these ideas. This has been my major breakthrough in research and presenting ideas. Moreover, I have improved in the use of references in

Tuesday, September 24, 2019

Oracles Larry Ellison - A Profile of Power, Influence, and Dominance Case Study

Oracles Larry Ellison - A Profile of Power, Influence, and Dominance - Case Study Example There are several qualities that Ellison thought the world. He tried to prove that college degree is not important in achieving excellence him being a college dropout. Despite him not having a degree, he was the first to be the most successful billionaire before Bill Gates and Steve Jobs. He dropped out of college more than once (Ellison & Symonds, 2014). He stayed in school enough and through this, he was able to learn about computer design. The knowledge he got was from reading an article that was written by an IBM scientist. Larry thought that one should not retire. With him turning seventy years, he remains the longest founder CEO in the tech industry. He has been holding the Oracle since 1977. According to IBM, there should be the retirement of one after reaching the age of 60 but Larry has not thought of retiring and speaks nothing about retirement to the public. Larry believes that a competitive spirit is the greatest motivator in anything one carries out. He still goes to work and claim that the encouragement that he has is that he is addicted to winning (Southwick, 2003). According to him, what drives him is the constant testing of limits that one has. He always thinks of making a difference and changes lives. Being greedy is a theory that is used by Ellison to achieve all his goals. According to a research that was done, he is ranked the fifth richest man in the world with an estimated worth of 49.5b billion. He claims to get there through the standards that he set for high executive pay. He was the highest paid in the 2000s. The salary being highest did not make him miss work. This is what he described to as being greedy in ensuring that one becomes successful in life. Being generous is a virtue that Ellison brought out to be much needed for one to make effort and get success in activities that one does. Despite him being a philanthropist, he does not talk much about his efforts unlike other philanthropic billionaires like Bill Gates. He is mainly focused on medical research and green energy but does not talk much about the efforts that he has made to improve the sector (Symonds & Ellison, 2003). According to him, he was ready to give much of his wealth to charity.

Monday, September 23, 2019

Review Of Film Breathless Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Review Of Film Breathless - Essay Example Basically, Michel seems to suffer from gradual exhaustion of his limited energy, passion, and courage. In the end, he is dead on his feet. Social power always punishes individuals who are rebellious and discontent with the original social system. Fighting against the social system often happens to be a doomed battle in which an individual like Michel either chooses to die or has no choice but to surrender. Faced with the looming prospect of death, Michel still believes in the motto â€Å"All or nothing† which identifies how a person can never be both a rebel and a bender. He famously claims in the movie, â€Å"You’ve got to have all or nothing†. Michel’s last moments are considered some of the most iconic moments in French cinema. Being a rebel chased by police, Michel naturally feels tired and drained from all the fuss. He craves comfort and warmth amidst much darkness. For example, waking up next to a woman seems like a very happy and fulfilling experien ce for him. He needs such a woman in his life who could make him feel fulfilled taking him away from all the drama in his life. He wants such a companion not only to become able to satisfy his sexual needs, but he also has other hidden desires embedded deep in his heart  Michel tells a story in the film in which a man who steals 5000000 francs finds a woman and together they spend their time as a happy couple pampering themselves. The thief in Michel’s story makes the woman he likes his partner by confessing to her

Sunday, September 22, 2019

Pick any Business Law Case and write a 4 Page paper including a Work Essay

Pick any Business Law Case and write a 4 Page paper including a Work Cited Page - Essay Example The facts of the case were simple, Pinnacle Entertainment Inc, a Delaware corporation possessing 97% interest on Belterra Resort Indiana, transferred the title and possession of a riverboat to Belterra Resort Indiana. Pinnacle acquired the remaining 3% interest on Belterra in August of 2001. The Indiana Departments of Revenue conducted an audit of sales tax and use tax of Belterra in 2002 and proclaimed in its assessment that Belterra owed tax amounting to $1,869,783 plus interest and penalty, for acquisition of the riverboat. Belterra protested against the assessment of the Department and the Department after hearing the matter, issued a letter of findings denying the letter of protest. Belterra filed an appeal with the Indiana Tax Court. Both the parties filed for summary motion. The court in Belterra Resort Ind, LLC v. Ind. Dep’t of State Revenue, 900 N.E. 2d 513, 517 granted Belterra’s motion for summary judgment and reasoned that Belterra was not liable for use tax on its acquisition of the river boat due to the fact that the transaction was a contribution to the capital and not the result of a retail transaction (â€Å"Indiana Department of Revenue†). The Revenue Department was not satisfied with this judgment and this led to the case in hand, which was filed in the Supreme Court of Indiana. The problems which the Supreme Court had to sort out before moving with the case were numerous. Firstly, reaching a conclusion that whether the transfer of the river boat from the parent company (Pinnacle) to its subsidiary company (Belterra) was a â€Å"retail transaction† under the Indiana code section 6-2.5-3-2(a), as because the use tax can be imposed on Belterra for the riverboat only when it was acquired under retail transaction (Indiana Department of Revenue v. Belterra Resort). Secondly, the court had to determine whether the riverboat was obtained with or without consideration. Belterra argued that when no consideration was given f or the riverboat, the transaction was not a retail transaction, as  § 6-2.5-4-1(b)(2) states, â€Å"[a] person is engaged in selling retail when†¦he†¦ transfers that property to another person for consideration† (Indiana Department of Revenue v. Belterra Resort ). Thirdly, in the instant case the other critical legal issue was to find out, whether capital contribution by itself meant transfer of property without consideration. Belterra cited Grand Victoria Casino & Resort, LP v. Ind. Department of State Revenue, 789 N.E.2d 1041 to support his contention that capital contribution without consideration gave exemption from taxes (Rucker 827). Fourthly, the court had to determine whether there was exchange of some form of consideration other than cash in between Pinnacle and Belterra. The problem was to get an answer to the questions that â€Å"Was there any other benefit inuring to Pinnacle?† or â€Å"Was there some detriment borne by Belterra?† (Rucker 828). Fifthly, the court had to determine whether the presence of consideration in a transaction is enough to make it a retail sale. Justice Boehm states, â€Å"‘consideration’ is a necessary but not a sufficient condition to render a transaction ‘Selling at retail’† (Rucker 829). This however was contradictory to what Justice Rucker opined before. In the former context it was stated that when capital contribut

Saturday, September 21, 2019

Helping Children with Learning Disabilities Essay Example for Free

Helping Children with Learning Disabilities Essay Children with learning disabilities are smart or smarter than their peers, but may have difficulty with things like reading, writing, reasoning, and organizing information by themselves. A learning disability is a lifelong issue that cannot be cured or fixed with a snap of the fingers. Children who have the right support and intervention can succeed in school. Then later they will be able to go and be successful later in life. Children with learning disabilities need the support of parents, school and their community to be successful. Parents need to be able to encourage children with their strengths, know what their weaknesses are, and be able to understand the educational system to be able to work with professionals. Learning Disabilities cannot be categorized into one diagnosis. Learning disabilities are caused by biological factors that are caused by differences in the structure and functioning of the nervous system. Many people, both in the local and professional community, use the terms handicap and disability interchangeably, but they are not. A learning disability means that preschoolers are unable to complete tasks in a certain way. Children with learning disabilities have a hard time functioning in areas such as sensory, physical, cognitive, and other areas. Handicap means that preschoolers are unable to function and cope in their environment. These children have impairments such as cerebral palsy or down syndrome. In 1991, the federal government amended the disabilities label to â€Å"Individuals with Disabilities Act† (PL 102-119). This act allowed states to be able to not identify with one of the thirteen federal disability labels, but to classify preschoolers with special needs. (Kilgo, pg 27) With the new changes professionals were able to use new terms like developmentally delayed and at risk when identifying children. Developmentally delayed is determined on the basis of various developmental assessments and/or an informed clinical opinion. Children starting at the age of three years old can now be identified for services. Delays can be expressed in a difference between a child’s chronological age and his/her performance levels. Delays occur when a child does not reach his/her developmental milestones at the expected age level or time. If a child is slightly behind it is not considered a delay until he/she are lagging in two or more areas of motor, language, social or thinking skills. Developmental delays are usually diagnosed by a doctor or medical professional based on strict guidelines and take more than one visit to diagnose. Parents or childcare providers are usually the first to notice children not progressing at the same rate as other children. Testing will help to gauge a child’s developmental level. At risk describes children with exposure to certain adverse conditions and circumstances known to have a high probability of resulting in learning and development difficulties? (Kilgo, pg 28) These children have not been identified as having a disability, but as children who may be developing conditions that will limit their success in school or lead to disabilities. There are three factors that can result in a child’s environment. The first is established risk/genetic. This could be where a child is born with cerebral palsy, Down syndrome, or spinal bifida. Biological risk means that a child has a history of pre- or post- natal conditions that heighten the chance of development. These could be conditions such as premature births, infants with low birth weights, maternal diabetes, and bacterial infections like meningitis or HIV. Environmental risks are considered biologically typical, meaning they are environmental conditions that are limiting or threating to the child’s development. All three at risk factors can result in cognitive, social, affective, and physical problems. (Kim, pg. 4) Some signs of learning disabilities in young children are: †¢ A toddler may reach developmental milestones quite slowly. †¢ The child may have trouble understanding the concept of time. Is the child confused by the use of words like tomorrow, today, and yesterday? †¢ Young children have a lot of energy, but some have an excessive amount of kinetic energy, known as hyperactivity. †¢ A child that has difficulty distinguishing right from left may have difficulty identifying words. †¢ A child with a learning disability often masters several areas, while failing in two or more areas. A child that is perceived as disobedient may actually have difficulty understanding and following instructions. Once a child has been identified as having a possible learning disability, assessments need to be completed. An assessment is the process of gathering information for the purpose of making a decision about children with known or suspected disabilities in the area of screening, diagnosis, eligibility, program planning, and/or process monitoring and evaluation. (Kilo, pg. 90) During the assessment, evaluations should be accomplished with the e goal of identifying developmentally ppropriate goals, identifying unique styles and strengths, looking at parent goals and outcomes for their children, reinforcing family’s competence and worth, and creating a sense of shared commitment between families, schools, and professionals. Families possess a wealth of information and should play a very active role in the decision making, planning, and evaluations of their children. Schools are required to foster a child’s education, offering and supporting the needs of each child through a series of individualized instructions and interventions. School districts must provide documentation stating that the student has received the required instruction by qualified personnel. These interventions help teachers and staff to educate and foster the needs of children with learning disabilities. Assessments are an ongoing process. The initial assessment should be used to screen, diagnose, and check for eligibility for services. Ongoing assessments are to focus on a child’s skill level, needs, background, experiences, and interests, as well as the family’s preferences and priorities. Over the years practice has shown that there is a link between assessments and curriculum to provide for the needs of the child. It is important to keep records of a child’s progress. A very useful way is through portfolio assessments. These portfolios can be considered a looking glass into a child’s growth. Portfolios also help teachers and team members to keep observations and comments about a child’s activities and behaviors. The information collected can help meet many of the required criteria for planning and monitoring. An important responsibility of an educator is to have an environment that will both nurture and foster learning. When designing an environment childcare providers should use best practice guidelines from places like National Association of Education of Young Child (NAEYC) and National Association of Family Childcare (NAFCC). Environments should look at available space, age of children, visual appeal, safety and health, and organization. (Perri Klass, pg. 46) Always remember that environments exert powerful influences on children and help to play a vital role in children’s lives. Activity areas should include gross- motor, quiet/calm, discover, dramatic, therapeutic, and arts and crafts areas. Rooms should not have furniture that is used to separate centers or activities but should use things like lower lightening, parachutes hanging from the ceiling and area rugs to help children understand the use of different centers. The main goal of childcare providers and educators is to provide the best possible services for children with learning disabilities by providing services â€Å"as early and comprehensively as possible in the least restrictive setting†. Services and interventions should be supported in the most natural environments that will include the child’s primary care giver. Individual Education Plans (IEP) plays a large role in the education process of children with learning disabilities. These IEP’s require professionals, parents, and caregivers to work together as a team. They hold teams to accountability standards for the care of children with disabilities. A child’s IEP helps to furnish an instructional direction, sort of like a blueprint of care, to measure the effectiveness and progress of children. If an IEP is carefully written and appropriate goals are set, it will provide special education services to a child that will be reflected throughout his/her life. In the field of early childhood education, the definition of special needs has drastically changed for children with learning disabilities over the years. We live in a very diverse society of languages, foods, music, values and religious beliefs that brings us the strengths of our nation. Every day the makeup of our society changes and so does the needs of our children, especially those of children with learning disabilities. Our community is seeing a growing need for services for children with learning disabilities. Young children with learning disabilities need to receive services at the earliest age possible. Parents need to remember that learning disabilities do not go away overnight and for some children it takes years of recognizing, expressing, thinking, and problem solving to succeed at being the young adult that they are meant to be.

Friday, September 20, 2019

Corporate Reporting Case Study Diageo plc

Corporate Reporting Case Study Diageo plc 1. Information about the company Diageo, formed in 1997, from the merger of Guinness PLC and Grand Metropolitan PLC, is a multinational company, trading in over 180 markets across the world, listed on both the London Stock Exchange (DGE) and the New York Stock Exchange (DEO). It is the worlds leading premium drinks business. The company containes 24,270 employees worldwide with offices in around 80 countries. Company takes up about 30% global markets, and holds worlds top 20 brands include: Smirnoff, Johnnie Walker, Captain Morgan, Baileys, JB, Josà © Cuervo, Tanqueray, Guinness, Crown Royal, Beaulieu Vineyard and Sterling Vineyards wines, and Bushmills Irish whiskey. Key numbers for fiscal year ending June, 2009: Sales: $15,378.0M One year growth: (4.7%) Net income: $2,849.0M Income growth: (10.6%) Source: Answers (2009) Diageo: Information from answers 2. Competitive Environment 1 ¼Ã¢â‚¬ ° Industry Competition Overview The world drink market is broadly exploited in the mature markets. Among the competitors, the most successful are Pernod Ricard Group, Majestic Wine PLC, Bacardi Company Limited, Brown-Forman Corporation, Fortune Brands, Inc. Diageo PLC holds 30 per cent of the total drink market. 2 ¼Ã¢â‚¬ ° Globalisation and Mergers Acquisitions There is a rapid growth in international trade and increasing globalisation of Liquor industry. The main competitions focus on the emerging market and expanding the global market shares by mergers and acquisitions. Pernod Ricard and Fortune Brands jointly buyout the worlds second largest spirits company Doumic in UK. In order to precedence over its competitors, the company speeds up mergers and acquisitions internationally. 3 ¼Ã¢â‚¬ ° Legislation and Economic Environment The EU will enact legislation to uniform the standards for wine production. Regulation is also rapidly developing in emerging markets, which may compounds some difficulties in taking up the emerging market. Economic crisis had a deep impact on the pattern of alcohol manufacturing competition, which had a varied impact on Diageos brand performance and parts of the brands sales fell significantly. Evaluation of Financial Statements The Corporations financial position is evaluated by ratio analysis, horizontal analysis and vertical analysis, which is measured by using FinSAS, according to the Income Statements and Balance Sheets, compared with another biggest drink manufacture-Majestic Wine PLC. 1. Ratio Analysis The value of the firm is determined by its profitability and growth. In ratio analysis, I compare the ratios of the Diageo PLC for six years and compare the group with another firm in the same industry. The objective of ratio analysis regarding to the firms financial position is to evaluate the effective of the groups policies in operating management, investment management, financial strategy and dividend policy. 1) Overall Profitability Assessment The ROE is a comprehensive indicator of firms performance. The ROE of Diageo shows a significant increase from 2007 to 2009, from 33.94% to 43.78%, much higher than its competitor in UK. On average over long periods, large publicly traded firms in the U.S. generate ROE in the range of 11 to 13 percent. The ROE of Diageo is stable at a relatively high level around 30% to 50%. That indicates the managers are suitable performed in employing the funds invested by the firms shareholders to generate returns. Diageos strategies of focusing on profit improvement, such as acquisitions, restructuring initiatives and targeting at emerging markets, gains positive results. 2) Operating Management Assessment The Gross Profit Ratio and EBIT Margin show the profitability of companys operating activities. The figures above show that the Gross Profit Ratio and EBIT Margin of Diageo are much higher than Majestic Wine plc, indicating a seriously competition in the economic situation. Both ratios of Diageo decreased slightly to 1.59% and 1.28% form 2008 to 2009 due to the impact of economic downturn, especially in Spain and Ireland. However, both ratios maintained at a relatively high level, validating the companys stated intention in its annual report of focusing on profitability. Diageo has grown profits in the mature markets and made great advances in emerging markets by volume, by net sales, and by operating profit. 3) Financial Management Assessment The level of Diageos financial leverage is s slightly higher than Majestics and increased significantly from 2006 to 2009. Financial leverage increases the Groups ROE as long as the cost of the liabilities is less than the return from investing these funds. What we should pay attention to is that while a firms shareholders can potentially benefit from financial leverage, it can also increase their risk. 4) Investment Ratio Assessment The DPS of Diageo increased steadily from 2005 to 2009, which reflects a stable dividend policy. Reported EPS growth increases by 10% in the recession period. The profits come from two restructuring initiatives in the year, which generate  £160 million of cost reductions in all, and from the Exchange rate movements which increase net sales by  £1,095 million. 5) Liquidity Ratio Assessment The above ratios attempt to measure the firms ability to repay its current liabilities, i.e. short-term solvency. The Current Ratio of Diageo is significantly outstanding than Majestics, about 1.35 on average. Diageos inventory situation form 2005 to 2009 was uncomfortable when measured in terms of quick ratio, which is too low (less than 1) for manufactory industry. Diageo paid less attention to improve the inventory management. 6) Financial Strength Assessment A companys financial leverage is also influenced by its debt financing policy. The Diageos Debt Ratio and D/E Ratio are higher than its competitors, and its D/E Ratio increased significantly from 2006 to 2009. From the tables above, we can find out that Diageo relies on debt to some extent. It is optimal for firms to use debt in their capital structure for its low costs. However, too much reliance on debt financing is potentially costly to the firms shareholders. Furthermore, Diageo will face financial distress if it defaults on the interest and principal payments. 2. Horizontal Analysis Sales were increasing significantly from 2005 to 2009, especially in 2009, reflecting the contribution from brands outstanding performance in Asia Pacific and Europe, which offsets the impact by the weakness in North America. The operational progress and foreign exchange benefits stated by annual report also increase its net sales. The increase of Cost of Good Sales is more than Sales increase for the accounting period, which means that it costs more to sell the product than we actually made. The growth of Operating Expense exceeds the growth of Gross Profit by 18.53%.This means that our sales exceeded the expenses, and the company gains the money. Income Tax Expense exception, other items on the income statement are increase, which indicates a decline in profitability of the company. The increase of Net Income results in the change for EPS on LSE and DEO. 3. Vertical Analysis The proportion of COGS increased from 2005 to 2009 by 2.28%, which shows the direct effect on the companys Gross Profit. The decrease of the proportion of Operating Income and the increase of proportion of Interest Expense results in the slightly decline of Net Income. 2) Capital Structure analysis The total long-term liabilities of Diageo PLC take more than half parts of its capital structure both in 2008 and 2009. Its capital structure is far more risky than the Majestic Wine PLC which contains large proportion of equity and current liabilities. Under the risk-based capital structure, low liquidity enhances the Diageos financial risk. On the other hand, the non-current assets, which gain high level of return, take up a large proportion, so the profitability of the company has also been improved. Conclusion Diageos strategy is to generate consistent top line growth while enhancing its operating margins and return on invested capital. The company seeks out selective acquisitions to support brands growth which strengthen its market position in both United Kingdom and abroad. In the future, according to the companys strategy, Diageo looks for the opportunities in emerging markets, such as Brazil, Russia, India and China. Annual report reveals that the Companys credit risk comes from financial instruments and business activities. Diageo minimizes its financial credit risk through the application of risk management policies approved and monitored by the board. Trade and other receivables exposures are managed locally in the operating units where they arise and credit limits are set as deemed appropriate for the customer. There is no concentration of credit risk with respect to trade and other receivables as the group has a large number of customers which are internationally dispersed  [1]  . Although the corporate gains stable profitability, it has several financial management limitations. Its capital structure contains too many long-term debts and inefficient inventory management may add the liquidity risk. SECTION B Corporate GovernanceThe goal of Corporate Governance is to solve the agency problem and create sustainable shareholders wealth. The corporate governance practices of Diageo PLC mainly include: internal control by board of directors and remuneration policy. Key to committees  [2]   1. Audit 2. Executive (comprising senior management) 3. Nomination 4. Remuneration Comes from the figures above and corporate governance report, the board has an appropriate structure and directorship. The size of board is appropriate, in which case, the decision making and internal control are effective and can make sure all the directors are participating in the significant affairs. Good balance between executive and non-executive directors. There are fewer executive directors and more non-executive directors. Putting the outside directors into the committees can prevent manager conspiracy plundering the shareholders profits. The Board Committees are constructed clearly according to their functions, which plays a positive effect to the board: 1) Define the functions of board of directors. 2) The directors can access to company information more easily. 3) In favor of non-executive directors of the companys affairs involvement. The company has experienced experts serving on their board. The executive directors have a plenty of experience in the drink business, supported by a wide range of financial and technical experience of the non-executive directors. 2) Independence The Non-Executive Directors play an important part in corporate accountability and governance through their membership of sub-committees: Audit Committee, Executive Committee, Nomination Committee and Remuneration Committee, which improves the boards independence. The non-executive directors have a particular responsibility for ensuring that the business strategies proposed are fully discussed and critically reviewed. This enables the directors to promote the success of the company for the benefit of its shareholders as a whole,  [3]   2. Remuneration Committee 1) The composition of Remuneration Committee The Remuneration Committee consists of Diageos non-executive directors, all of whom are independent. In that case, the committee members have no financial interests about themselves conflicting with shareholders, which reinforce the committees independence. 2) Responsibilities for the corporate governance The responsibilities of the Committee include  [4]  : Making recommendations to the board on remuneration policy as applied to the executive directors and the executive committee. Setting, reviewing and approving individual remuneration arrangements for the chairman, executive directors and executive committee members including terms and conditions of employment. Determining arrangements in relation to termination of employment of each executive director and other designated senior executives; and Making recommendations to the board concerning the introduction of any new share incentive plans which require approval by shareholders. Types of Main Executive Compensation  [5]  : Base Salary: The Committee takes base salary into the consideration of the value created by individual, performance and the external market data. Annual Bonus: Incentives year on year delivery of short term performance goals. Cash bonuses were earned by other senior managers for achieving relevant performance targets for the financial year. Share Options: Incentives three-year earnings growth above a minimum threshold. Provides focus on increasing Diageos share price over the medium to longer term, however, may increase the manipulating of accounting profits. Performance share awards: Provides focus on delivering superior returns to shareholders. Pension: Provides competitive post-retirement benefits. Long Term Incentive Plan (LTIP): These awards vest three years after grant and are subject to satisfying the appropriate performance criteria over the relevant three year performance period. This policy can prevent manager focusing on manipulating short-term earning. Ownership Structure Diageo Plc is incorporated as a public limited company in England and Wales. It is listed on the London Stock Exchange, as DGE, and on the New York Stock Exchange, as DEO. The Ownership Structure of Diageo PLC is classified into Block-Holders Ownership. Capital Group Companies, Inc. are the only major shareholders, with 123 million ordinary shares (4.01% of the issued ordinary share capital) and no different voting rights. No other major shareholders are listed in Diageos Annual Report. Audit Independence 1. The audit report opinion  [6]   The financial statements give the objective and fair description of the Groups affairs at 30 June 2009 and its profit for the year then ended. The statements have been prepared accordance with IFRS. The statements have been prepared accordance with the requirements of the Companies Act 2006 and Article 4 of the IAS Regulation. 2. Assurance The independent auditor provides a positive assurance. It gives the audit opinions that the financial statements meet the requirement of IFRS, Companies Act and IAS Regulation. The mentioned above can improve the independence of external auditing. 3. Non-audit services  [7]   The group has a policy on the use of the external auditor for non-audit services, which is reviewed annually, most recently in June 2009. These pre-approved non-audit service categories may be summarized as follows: Accounting advice, employee benefit plan audits, and audit. or other attestation services, not otherwise prohibited; due diligence and other support in respect of acquisitions, disposals, training and other business initiatives; and Certain specified tax services, including tax compliance, tax planning and related implementation advice in relation to acquisitions, disposals and other reorganizations. All the non-audit services are under the supervision of audit committee which avoids the interest conflict while audit and non-audit services are provided by external group audit simultaneously. Audit Committee 1. The main features and characteristics Composition: Exclusively Independent Non-Executive Directors. Assurance: Financial reporting is evaluated by the Audit Committee. Background of committee members: The corporate requires at least one committee member is a financial expert. The term of office: The term of office of members should not be too long, generally 3 years. 2. The role in enhancing the credibility of the published information The audit committee takes the following responsibilities: Monitor internal control and risk management throughout the Group. Review the objectivity of the interim and annual financial statements including a review of the significant financial reporting judgments contained in them, before submission to the full board. Monitor the effectiveness of the global audit and risk function. Critically review the groups policies and practices concerning business conduct and ethics. Monitor the companys relationship with the external auditor, including its independence and managements response to any major external audit recommendations. According to the mentioned above, audit committee can monitor the key financial and operational risky areas, review the fairness and effectiveness of internal control system, and oversight of external audit and internal audit on the implementation of the recommendations of internal control through the internal audit functions. 3. The role in enhancing the independence of the external auditor  [8]   In reviewing the independence of the external auditor, the audit committee considered a number of factors. These include: the standing, experience and tenure of the external audit director; the nature and level of services provided by the external auditor; and confirmation from the external auditor. The audit committee established the policy to reinforce the independence of external auditors. The provision of any service must be approved by the audit committee. The fees generated from non-audit services are under the supervision of audit committee. Consulting work cannot be performed for audit clients. Voluntary Disclosures 1. The evaluation of voluntary disclosure  [9]   Environmental disclosure The Companys Environmental Statement provides a detailed description of environmental policy regarding to the improvement in environmental performance, energy and greenhouse gases, Water management, Brands, packaging and innovation, Supply chain, Research and transfer of technology, Hazardous substances, and Emergency response. Social disclosure Diageo PLC makes a real contribution to creating a positive role for alcohol in society, minimizing the harm from misuse and promoting the social benefits of responsible drinking. The companys investing in employee development increases the capability of its workforce, creates value and spreads wealth through the community. The company sets some policies about safety at work, employees health, employees capability and development. Ethical disclosure The liquor has a negative impact on peoples health, and the Diageo not only focuses on the markets expanding but also give a positive guidance to the public. 2. Three main potential impacts The Company contributes to the wider community through their involvement in corporate citizenship, volunteering and charitable activities, which gain positive impact on corporate reputation. One of the most significant impacts of its business on local economies is to provide employment. The occupational health and safety of employees is a high priority, which enhances the motivation and performance of employees.

Thursday, September 19, 2019

Black Friday: Tornado In Canada :: essays research papers

Black Friday: Tornado in Canada "The roof was caving in and I thought I was going to die. It was like your worst nightmare!" said Mary Grandish. Most people think they will die when they see,or hear of a tornado heading their way. Although all the details of the formation of a tornado are not yet understood, it is known that tornados are the result of great instability in the atmosphere and often appear during severe thunderstorms (see appendix #1 for a scientific explaination on how it really starts). Strong updrafts present in severe thunderstorms result in a rotational momentum. Falling rain and/or snow probably drags air from aloft when it comes falling down. The combination of severe thunderstorms and sweltering heat are the breeding grounds for a tornados' formation. The first sign of a tornado is a strong dust whirlwind along with a funnel growing from the storm cloud. A more organized funnel descends farther from the cloud, sometimes even touching the ground. Funnel winds generally move counterclockwise and the funnel can move slowly or at about 100/ft per second. Eventually the tornado becomes fragmented and dissipates causing the end of the tornado. Tornados are the cause of great destruction and devistation in the area in which they occur. For example the Tri-State Tornado of 1925 occured in the Kansas, Oklahoma, and Texas States. This tornado was one of the largest tornados recorded in history. It killed nearly 625 people. However, the tornado which strikes closest to home has occured on what Canadians have come to know as "BLACK FRIDAY". The tornado of "Black Friday" touched down on July 31st, 1987 at 2:59 pm. (See appendix #2 for the torndo path). (See appendix #'s 4&5 for maps locating the disaster sights). 27 people were killed; 25 people died during the tornado and 2 died later in the hospital. Hundreds of other people were injured and thousands were left homeless. Edmontonians faced a horrible natural phenomenon which destroyed homes, farms, and businesses. (See appendix #3 for a picture of what it looked like after the tornado struck up the street). More than 25 auto dealers faced a loss of more than $100,000 worth of cars, which were struck by hail measurihg at up to 10 inches in circumference. Not only were auto dealers' cars affected, but many other privately owned cars were damaged to varying degrees. The Kennedale storm sewer overloaded and outfall collapsed, which caused many people to call in complaining of flooded basements. Damage estimites were listed at between $150-$300 million dollars. $20 million dollars damage was done to Evergreen Mobile Home Trailer Park; $50-$70 million dollars

Wednesday, September 18, 2019

Preventing Marine Engine Pollution :: Marine Engines Environmental Essays

Preventing Marine Engine Pollution Currently 12 million marine engines are operated in the United States. These marine engines are among the highest contributors of hydrocarbons (HC) and oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emissions in many areas of the country. HC and NOx produce ground-level ozone, which irritates the respiratory system causing chest pain and lung inflammation. Ozone can also aggravate existing respiratory conditions such as asthma. Boaters can join many others who are working to make a difference in preventing pollution from marine engines. Improving the Marine Engine The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is working to develop and implement emission standards for commercial and recreational marine engines. The marine industry has been working to develop technology for a new generation of low emission, high performance engines. Recreational boaters will begin seeing this new generation of engines in coming years. Boaters Can Prevent Pollution Even with the new technology, the cooperation of individual boaters is essential in the effort to improve air quality and prevent pollution. Boaters can make a difference that will help protect the environment now and in the future by adopting the following practices: ï‚ · Limit engine operation at full throttle. ï‚ · Eliminate unnecessary idling. ï‚ · Avoid spilling gasoline. ï‚ · Use a gasoline container you can handle easily and hold securely. ï‚ · Pour slowly and smoothly. ï‚ · Use a funnel or a spout with an automatic stop device to prevent overfilling the gas tank. ï‚ · Close the vent on portable gas tanks when the engine is not in use or when the tank is stored. ï‚ · Transport and store gasoline out of direct sunlight in a cool, dry place. ï‚ · Use caution when pumping gasoline into a container at the gas station. ï‚ · Carefully measure the proper amounts of gasoline and oil when refueling. ï‚ · Follow the manufacturer's recommended maintenance schedule. ï‚ · Prepare engines properly for winter storage. ï‚ · Buy new, cleaner marine engines. By combining these strategies, boaters can reduce pollution from marine engines and help improve air quality across the nation and protect public health. What are the human health and welfare effects of these pollutants? The engines that are covered by this proposal contribute to ozone formation and ambient PM and CO levels. These pollutants are subject to our National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS), and states that exceed NAAQS levels are required to take measures to reduce emissions. In addition, these engines also emit Mobile Source Air Toxics.

Tuesday, September 17, 2019

My Childhood Fear Essay

Why do people have fears? Why do we let fears control our lives? I never thought I would ever get over my own fears. These fears made my childhood very difficult and hard to deal with. When I was a kid, I was scared of spiders. As great as my parents were about letting their kids explore the world and letting us develop our own opinions about the organisms we encountered, I think my fear of spiders was largely my dad’s fault. He still tells me stories about how our house would have been â€Å"overrun with black widows – overrun!!† if he hadn’t hauled a can of Raid out into the backyard and sprayed the heck out of every black widow he found once a week. He talked about the sun spider (not a true spider, but still an arachnid) in the laundry closet with a hint of fear and has told me the story with a spider several times. It goes like this. One night, I called out to my dad, telling him that there was a spider in my crib. He looked around and didn’t see anything, so he told me I was dreaming and should go back to sleep. A few minutes later, I called out again, saying that there was a spider in my bed. He looked again and still didn’t see anything. I kept insisting there was a spider, so he eventually started pulling off blankets to prove that there was no spider. Of course there was a spider, THE BIGGEST BLACK WIDOW OF ALL TIME! Or at least that’s how my dad tells it. You’d think this spider was about to devour his beloved firstborn, that I was lucky he was there to save me and vanquish the black widow foe. He wouldn’t ever admit it, but these sorts of stories have led me to believe that my dad migh t have a touch of arachnophobia. When my dad, who is rather fearless and tells stories of brave encounters with rattlesnakes and an angry swarm of yellow jackets, actually showed any sort of fear, it sort of rubbed off on you. So, I was scared of spiders too. I remember growing up thinking that most spiders were dangerous, that killing a spider was better than risking being bitten. I used to be so scared of spiders that I’d have nightmares about them lurking under my blankets. I would wake up in a panic and start ripping off the covers to prove to myself that there wasn’t actually a spider in my bed. I knew there wasn’t a spider in my bed, but then again†¦ My dad had told me that story about the black widow in my crib, so maybe my subconscious mind was trying to tell me something†¦ As I became more and more interested in insects, I learned that the vast majority of spiders really weren’t going to hurt me. I knew that the wolf spider crawling up the wall or the little harmless brown spiders in the basement weren’t going to do anything to me, but the fear persisted. I felt a little stupid for being scared of spiders. But I couldn’t help it. They bothered me. When I was going to school, in the city of my birth, I was imagining that black widows lurked in every corner and I would have daily encounters with all manner of huge spider. Every now and again I would envision a spider crawling up the back of my couch while I was doing homework or something and it would make me shiver just a little. So, how did I get over my fear of spiders? I don’t know how or why it worked, but I told myself to ignore the spiders and suddenly they stopped bothering me. No more spider nightmares! They can crawl all over me and I don’t care. Black widows are beautiful spiders and I love to watch them. I enjoy seeing the big orb weaver spiders when I’m in the sorts of habitats where they’re found. Sun spiders – spectacular animals! And who doesn’t love a good jumping spider? I might not pick spiders up, just in case I misidentify one I shouldn’t handle or have a strange reaction to tarantula hairs (those things make me itch like mad!), but I’m perfectly okay with spiders living in and around my house. Sometimes I knock their webs down as I dust, but otherwise they’ve got a pretty good thing going living with me. I just don’t care that they’re there. All in all, I am happy I went on that field trip. Forcing myself to walk through the spiders to get to the pond seems to have done me a world of good. Now, if only I could get over my fear of centipedes†¦

Monday, September 16, 2019

Masque of the Red Death

While Most are familiar with the gruesome nature of Poe’s classic short story horror yarn â€Å"Masque of the Red Death,† most have a tendency to fixate on the action of the story and the grim proceedings that occur and do not carefully examine the role that nature plays in the short story and how the short story presents a cautionary morality tale warning people that no matter how they try, they can never escape the wrath of the natural world when it decides to wreck havoc. Poe and his contemporary authors of the 19th century presented a recurring theme in their work. This theme centers on the notion that society is inherently corrupt and that finding oneness with nature is a preferred choice. Of course, this does not mean that it was suggested that people abandon their homes in urban areas and head out to live in the forest, but it was a call to look skeptically towards the structure that society provides to them as it is not as flawless as they assume. This is seen in symbolic terms in the â€Å"Masque of the Red Death† and the environment in which the masque actually occurs. In the short story, Prince Prospero and his cronies lock themselves up in Prospero’s mansion so as to hide from the ravages of the Red Death that has destroyed much of the population. In order to entertain themselves and hide their paranoia of death, they turn the event into a grand masque. In a way, this is a strange attempt at distract and distance themselves from the ravages of the world outside. Eventually, Prince Prospero notices a hooded individual who has snuck into Prospero’s home. (He is noticeable in the manner that his masque guise stands greatly out) When confronted, the stranger reveals himself to be the human embodiment of the Red Death and Prospero and his minions are doomed to succumb to the same fate as the common people they had mocked. There is great symbolism in this tale as Prospero represents the privileged upper class and the masque that he promotes within a sequestered location represents the great cities that have seemingly insulated themselves from the ravages of nature. The use of the masques can even hint that the people are hiding their true nature of paranoia and fear of what lies beyond the wall of the castle. The insolence of Prospero and his minions is seen in the following excerpt: But the Prince Prospero was happy and dauntless and sagacious. When his dominions were half depopulated, he summoned to his presence a thousand hale and light-hearted friends from among the knights and dames of his court, and with these retired to the deep seclusion of one of his castellated abbeys. This was an extensive and magnificent structure, the creation of the prince's own eccentric yet august taste. A strong and lofty wall girdled it in. This wall had gates of iron. The courtiers, having entered, brought furnaces and massy hammers and welded the bolts. In this situation, it appears that Prospero holds a bizarre arrogance that if he re-enforces his castle, then he can keep out the brutality of the Red Death. This is a small scale version of the use of society and urbanized areas to control, curb and detain the natural world. Of course, there are limits to society’s value in this regard as nature wields force that can easily overwhelm any city. The Red Death, while a disease, is a being of natural selection. Pestilence has one primary purpose: to thin the heard when the population of the heard grows to a dangerous extreme. When nature has decided on its course of action, often, it is unidirectional in its approach and next to impossible to deter. And now was acknowledged the presence of the Red Death. He had come like a thief in the night. And one by one dropped the revelers in the blood-bedewed halls of their revel, and died each in the despairing posture of his fall. And the life of the ebony clock went out with that of the last of the gay. And the flames of the tripods expired. And Darkness and Decay and the Red Death held illimitable dominion over all. In other words, nature, taking the form of pestilence, will not be stopped nor will it be denied its primary purpose. To this end, Prospero is doomed as will anyone who believes they can curb or dominate or escape nature.

Sunday, September 15, 2019

Equality and Diversity – the Way That People Describe Themselves and Others

Describe the individual factors that make a person who they are, by giving examples of each of the following factors: a) Physical characteristics b) Emotions c) Likes and dislikes d) Values and beliefs Each of us has different individual characteristics and factors, and it is the combination of these that make up who we are. The individual factors are made up of physical characteristics (what people see –examples might be our size, build, colour of hair or skin); emotions (the way in which you feel – examples might be confidence, shyness, an outgoing nature, or miserable); likes and dislikes (things you enjoy doing or those that you avoid – examples might be work, hobbies, sporting activities, cooking / eating, socialising); and values and beliefs (how the world appears to you – examples might be your religion, your moral code, your political beliefs, or your life choices in terms of education and employment). Resubmission: In relation to values and beliefs, these are essentially our moral make-up. They are the thoughts and beliefs by which we live our lives, and which will help to provide direction for us. Although they may develop as we progress from childhood into adulthood, our values and beliefs will generally tend to stay the same for much of our adult lives. Our values are ideas and moral views that we, as individuals, feel are very important to the way in which we live our lives, for instance the way in which we raise our children, or the way in which we value integrity and honesty in others. Our beliefs differ slightly in that they refer to ideas that we hold to be true, for instance religious or political views and ideology. Describe the ways in which someone might choose to describe themselves by giving examples of the following topics: a) Personal interests and characteristics b) Religious and cultural characteristics c) Geographic characteristics People are moulded to an extent by what they have seen and experience in their lifetimes, and this is something that can and will change as time moves on. When people are particularly interested or motivated by certain areas of life, hobbies or beliefs, they may choose to describe themselves by providing reference to that persuasion. For instance: †¢Personal interests and characteristics – As we progress through life, from child to adult, and then as we grow older, we develop interests in certain aspects of life and certain hobbies and pastimes. It may be that we develop these entirely independently of anyone else, but we are often guided and influenced by people we know or see. Our interests may be reflected in our membership of certain personal interest groups – for instance political parties, social groups or sporting groups. Someone with a particular interest in politics, and with particular political persuasion may choose to join a local political party, taking part in activities, and helping to campaign for certain political plans. They may then refer to themselves as a Conservative, for instance. Those who have a particular interest in community involvement may join a group such as the Rotary Club and help to organise charitable events. It may be that an ardent football or cricket fan joins a particular team as a member, thereafter referring to themselves by the name of the club (for example â€Å"A Gooner† (Arsenal FC)). , or a â€Å"Hell’s Angel†. In terms of personal characteristics, people may tend to refer to themselves by way of their characteristics, and these can be elements of a person’s make-up that they have not necessarily chosen or developed. These could be with regard to their emotional characteristics, perhaps describing themselves as â€Å"outgoing† or â€Å"funny†, or otherwise making reference to the way that they appear to others. They may also refer to themselves with regard to a particular personality trait, for instance their sexual persuasion. Some may refer to themselves by way of physical traits, for instance the colour of their hair, the size of their bodies, or a particular disability. †¢Religious and cultural characteristics – a person may refer to themselves in terms of their religion and belief (â€Å"I am a Christian / Jew / Muslim†). They may also choose to refer to themselves as being part of a particular cultural group, or as having particular cultural beliefs. For instance some may choose to describe themselves according to age group (for instance a teenager or pensioner), or with reference to their standing in society or perceived membership of a class group (working, middle or upper class), or perhaps with regard to their profession (for example tradesman, health worker). The cultural characteristics can also link in to an individual’s ideology or belief – it may be that they are a member of a particular belief group, such as Scientology, and therefore cal themselves a Scientologist; or they describe themselves as being of a particular political persuasion (â€Å"I am a Liberal†). Geographic characteristics – a person may describe themselves as being a member of a particular group based in a certain part of the Country. For instance, a â€Å"Geordie†, â€Å"Londoner†, or â€Å"Northerner† and â€Å"Southerner†. These groups carry with them a number of different identifiers: This cou ld be in terms of language and dialect used (one is often able to identify the geographic origin of those with particularly strong accents, or those using particular phrases); it may also be in terms of cuisine enjoyed within that particular region, the local sport, or perhaps the local customs and associated dress. In addition to these there has historically been differing geographic characteristics when it comes to employment and industry (for instance clay mining in the South West, coal mining in the northern areas of the UK, and steel making in areas such as Sheffield). All in all there are a number of different identifiers and characteristics that could be adopted by an individual as a result of where they originate from geographically. Explain what is meant by the following terms by completing the sentences: a) Dual discrimination means†¦ b) Positive discrimination means†¦ c) Discrimination arising from disability means†¦ ) Discrimination by association means†¦ e) Protected characteristics means†¦ a) Dual discrimination means being discriminated against for more than a single reason (eg race and religion). b) Positive discrimination means receiving favourable treatment as a result of one of their protected characteristics (eg level of service due to their age, or o ffer of a job due to gender). c) Discrimination arising from disability means being discriminated against as a result of having a disability. d) Discrimination by association means being discimnated against as a result of our association with another person or culture that is also receiving iscrimination. e) Protected characteristics means the personal / social characteristics that are protected from discrimination by law (gender / age / race / religion†¦ ). Make clear what it means to have multiple identities and then give three examples from people you know (not yourself) to illustrate your explanation of multiple identities. Having multiple or shared identities means that you are not just a member of a particaulr group or represent a single interest. People are made up of a number of different interests, beliefs, personal and geographical characteristics. Therefore when you describe yourself you would likely refer to a number of these identities in order to paint the full picture. For example: †¢A teacher, as well as a mother of two children, and a keen swimmer. †¢A doctor, as well as a cyclist, and a proud cook. †¢A schoolboy, older brother and keen gamer. Clearly explain what is meant by shared identities. Shared identities are interests or beliefs that we hold in common with a group of other people. This may be with regard to areas of life such as religion, sport, profession, or geographical area. Explain how an individual can identify themselves as belonging to a number of different groups. ) Give two examples for the above. An individual will almost certainly have interests, beliefs or membership that ties in with a number of different groups. As a result, they may choose to refer to any number of these when describing themselves as a person. For example: †¢I am a practising Christian and am also a proud North erner. †¢I am a pensioner, but still enjoy cycling with the Middlesex Marauders Any individual will almost certainly be a member of a number of different groups, either due to their specific ideals or beliefs, their physical and emotional characteristics, or their personal interests and characteristics. A number of these have been expanded upon in previous answers. A person may choose to describe themselves by reference to one or all of these membership groups. This may be with reference to personal interest groups – for instance political parties, social groups or sporting clubs. It may be with reference to personal characteristics, for instance their size, build, hair colour, emotional characteristics or sexual orientation. A person may refer to themselves in terms of their religion and belief. They may also choose to refer to themselves as being part of a particular cultural group, or as having particular political beliefs. An individual may also refer to themselves as coming from a particular geographic location, or as having originated from a particular demographic within society – for instance â€Å"a Northerner† or â€Å"a Geordie†. Two examples of using multiple groups as a way of describing yourself are as follows: †¢I am a practising Christian, a proud Northerner and am a founding member of the Lakeside lumberjacks. Here we see reference to a particular religious characteristic, in addition to a geographical characteristic and a personal interest characteristic. I am a pensioner, but still enjoy cycling with the Middlesex Marauders, and am a keen campaigner for the local Conservative party. Here we see examples of cultural (age and politics) characteristics, as well as personal interest characteristics. Write a description of yourself in terms of your own multiple identities. I am married and also a father of two children. I work locally as a police officer, a job that I entered after attending the University of Birmingham. I enjoy playing cricket as well as watching it, and am also a keen cyclist. I originate from Oxfordshire and have always lived in the South of England.

Firoozeh Dumas Essay

â€Å"To deny someone and education is not just a crime but a sin, because you are denying that person the opportunity to realize who he or she is meant to be. † This quote represents Firoozeh Dumas’s view on learning and becoming the person that she is today. Through her hardships, struggles, good times and the bad times, she has matured and learned a great deal. In the autobiography Funny in Farsi by Firoozeh Dumas, the themes or clashing cultures, new environments, and learning through experience comes into play. The story begins as Firoozeh moves with her family to the United States in 1972, as a seven-year-old. From the moment her airplane lands, she starts to see differences; not only in the geography of the land and the appearance of the people, but the look of the whole place. She is used to bustling cities in Iran, crowded with enthusiastic workers, shoppers, and people socializing. In contrast, her new neighborhood in America seemed fairly unexciting; she describes it as uniformed houses, all the lawns in perfect order, as if everything was constantly being maintained to achieve the ideal look. But little did she know that this was only the beginning of differences. Entering a new school would open a whole other orbit of biculturalism. As she enters school, she sees everyone; completely different looking from her, and all of them fluent in English. Curious classmates peered around her desk, examining her from head to toe trying to figure out who she is; what type of creature she is and where she comes from. To make things even worse, Firoozeh’s mother decides to attend school with her, to learn proper English. This leads to ultimate humiliation for Firoozeh. Not only is she an immigrant student, but an immigrant student with her mother in elementary school with her. Students constantly ask her where she comes from, as if she’s an alien of some sort. She slowly learns to respond by saying â€Å"You know, the country where Persian cats come from. † She hopes to one day learn English properly so she can fit in and communicate with her fellow students. Her first day is completely confusing as she tries to embrace all that is happening around her. On the way home, the bus driver drops Firoozeh and her mother a few blocks away from their house. Not so familiar with the location, they get further confused and can’t recognize their own home. To them, the homes all look alike, and can’t distinguish their own from the rest. These incidents represent the difficulties that Firoozeh goes through in her first couple of months in America. However, after a couple of months time, she learns more and more about the American culture and believes she is on her way to â€Å"Americanization. † During summer vacation, the family celebrates their first year completed in America by voyaging to Disneyland. Being a child, Firoozeh is completely star-struck and amazed by the tiny world created for the sole purpose of entertaining people. All her favorite Disney characters that she had only heard the names of in Iran were now walking amongst her in real life! Firoozeh wasn’t the only one who enjoyed herself. Her father Kauzem described Walt Disney as a â€Å"†¦ genius, a man whose vision allowed everyone, regardless of age, to relive the wonderment of childhood. † (p. 17) Their lives in America seemed to be improving, until the Iranian Revolution ten years later. Firoozeh, now a seventeen year old, was again suffering from racism everywhere she went. People were now staring at her again, questioning her and calling her a terrorist, just because of what was happening in her country. The pain of not fitting in was now something she became accustomed to, and she decided to overcome it by further educating herself. She was thankful to have the opportunity to be educated, and she wanted to take advantage of her chance. Firoozeh spent high school learning French, until she got fluent in it. She was offered an opportunity to travel to Paris for two months because of her immense skill and fluency at the language. There, she again faces racism, where she is interviewed and labeled as a seventeen-year-old spy. She begins to ignore the racism around her, and advances in her studies. From education, she learns who she really is. The strength is now ingrained in her and she knows who she is: a young Iranian woman who has succeeded through many hardships. Nothing can stop her from learning, the main factor that helped her develop her personality. The main conflict she faces over and over again throughout the story is intense racism and not being able to fit in with every other American. By end, she realizes that by using education she can overcome all her struggles. Firoozeh Dumas ends up marrying a Frenchman who she meets in college, and they both live happily together. She realizes that her own encouragement and drive to study has brought her all the way to college, and finds her a perfect partner. As she said before, education is what helps a person realize what they are meant to be. In my opinion, the character goes through many hardships; and just as things begin to turn up, she again falls into another political conflict because of the Iranian Revolution. With these multiple problems she has to face, she realizes that one key factor can help her survive through it all: education. She knew that as long as she kept studying and taking advantage of the right of education, she will succeed; and she did. I think she dealt with her hardships perfectly and came out extremely strong at the end. This book is an ideal representation of an immigrant girl coming from Iran. It shows the perfect perspective of what someone like Firoozeh might think, and the problems they will face. It gives an opportunity for the reader to advance their knowledge on a new culture, to see an Iranian immigrant’s point of view. By adding some humor in the story, it becomes even more entertaining and interesting to learn about Firoozeh’s struggles. This book has given me an increased amount of respect for people who come from a different country. Firoozeh’s education helped her go extremely far and be successful in life, and I hope the same will happen to me because I’m blessed with the right of education that Firoozeh describes.

Saturday, September 14, 2019

Spartan Women

Spartan women were given great privileges as they Involved their prominent sections In society In regards to education, family, religion and the economy, which soon became desired by women all over ancient Greece. Ancient historians such as Plutarch, Xenophobe, Aristotle, Plato, Euripides, Herodotus, Discusses and Aristotelian provide valuable insight to the girls, women and mothers of Sparta, as they left no records themselves. Plutarch famous Sayings of Spartan Women alms to promote a Spartan society where females play an essential role in the Indoctrination of their sons and where mothers are painted has brutal patriots.Women were perhaps the most important eater of Spartan society for many reasons and even so their most important role was to give birth to healthy sons for Sparta. They weren't allowed to spin or weave like women from other parts of Greece; such menial tasks were meant for the helots – state owned slaves. Source 2 (Plutarch on Sparta, p. 1 60) â€Å"When an Ionian woman was priding herself on one of the tapestries she had made (which was Indeed of great value), a Spartan woman showed off her four most dutiful sons and said they were the kind of thing a noble and good woman ought to produce, and should boast of them and take pride in them.This quote illustrates that for Spartan women, skills in handicrafts were not essential, and were not regarded as important as bearing healthier, stronger sons for the army. Xenophobe stated, â€Å"For free women the most important Job was to bear children. † In order to Inculcate the offspring with patriotism, the mother had to have the correct attitude herself. Spartan mother did rear their sons according to the customs and expectations of their state and society.They were proud of their role in shaping new generations of citizens as cited in Source 2, women who produce strong offspring's (sons) should feel superior to other omen and should be proud of their self righteousness. It implies tha t women with strong sons were strong themselves because it is believed that strong Spartan women and men create a strong offspring. ‘Great value' also suggests that sons were worth more than daughters, as sons are the only ones that can achieve the greatest honor in Sparta.Women were encouraged to display patriotism by sacrificing the men whom they loved and so highly did they prize the warriors med, that they are said to have said tears of Joy over the bleeding bodies of their wounded sons. Source 1 (Plutarch on Sparta, p. 60) â€Å"As a woman was burying her son, a worthless old crone came up to her and said: ‘You poor woman, what a misfortune! ‘ ‘No, by the two gods, a piece of good fortune,' she replied, teacake I bore him so that he might die for sons, they took pride in the bravery that had led to that fate.The women were ordered not to mourn, to suffer in silence during their son or husband's death. The character of Spartan women is marked with uncomm on firmness. At the shrine of patriotism they immolated nature. Undaunted bravery and impeached honor was, in their estimation far beyond affection. If a son came home from Sparta without his shield the mothers wouldn't tolerate a son's act of cowardice and dishonor to Sparta. Sources tell us that a Spartan woman killed her son, who had deserted his post because he was unworthy of Sparta. She declared: â€Å"He was not my offspring†¦ Or I did not bear one unworthy of Sparta. † The education of women was a uniquely Spartan concept within the polis, Spartan women were well educated and brought up in an orderly fashion to become proper mothers for the state, manage killer (state-owned property) and partake in religious festivals. As Spartan boys were surrendered to the agog (Expatriate training program) Spartan girls remained at home with their mothers to get educated, learn reading and writing, as well as being organized into bands for team games and choral singing.In thes e bands they were taught, and had to regularly perform, choral lyrics of myths that had been immoralities through ancient songs and poems. Many of these poems would have come from the Parthian (a collection of work composed by Spartan poet Oilcan). Girls also learned the basis (a form of dancing/exercise where the girls do rump Jumps). Whilst in these bands the Spartan women also trained in gymnastics and athletics, such as running, wrestling and Javelin throwing. Spartan women of all ages were encouraged to mix and train with the Spartan men and enter sporting competitions to get fit and strong.Plato commented on the Spartan women's education: â€Å"there are not only men but women also who pride themselves on their education; you can tell that what I say is true and that the Spartan have the best education in philosophy. † The reasoning behind this idea of physical training is that while Spartan women trained with Spartan men, the men old choose the strongest woman and marr y her because if both parents were strong and healthy then they are more likely to give birth to a strong and healthy child, which was of great importance to the Spartan men and especially women as demonstrated in source 2.Spartan women had a great deal of influence and power on Sprat's economy. They were the ‘men' of Sparta when their husband and sons were at war or at the agog. The Management of killer was an essential skill for Spartan women. As each expatriate owned a killer, the killer would be inherited by the wives and mothers of Sparta to raise their sons who would eventually inherit the killer. This means that they controlled the family wealth which affected the entire Spartan agricultural economy which there fore shows there power on the economy and therefore on Sparta.Spartan male citizens were dependent on their wife's efficiency to pay their â€Å"dues† to the cystitis. The management of the killer was not Just a responsibility which separated them from wom en from other Greek cities, this role was a crucial element in the Spartan economy. In Athens and Greece poorer women worked on Sparta, as manual labor and handcrafting was seen as an act for the helots only and his is also exemplified in source 2 as the Spartan women doesn't have time to do low acts like handcrafting and manual labor. Her main goal is to produce healthy and fit children and manage the Spartan economy.Aristotle disapproved of the power women wielded in Sparta, especially in the economy, and felt it contributed strongly to the downfall of the once mighty polis. In his writing he frequently mentioned that the trend to give women economic power could lead to a contrariety, a government controlled by women. Growth in economic prestige and immense power is apparent wrought the story of Princess Kinas, the daughter of King Archaisms and champion of two Olympic chariot team races. This wealthy equestrian expert was the owner of a twice Olympic champion chariot team (396 an d 392 SC).She dedicated a statue to herself at the Olympic sanctuary in Olympus. Which according to historians indicates that, â€Å"To compete was a mark of wealth, since horses require a great deal of grass and grazing land is not plentiful in Greece† and this tells us that as a result â€Å"women had effective control of plentiful wealth. † Archaeological evidence provides us with a deep understanding of how important he role of religion was in Sparta and to Spartan women. Evidence comes from the sanctuary of Artemisia Orator, here hundreds of votive offerings were found and the majority of them were lead figurines in the shape of women.Theories suggest that it is linked to childbirth. This theory suggests that pregnant women would make these offerings for three purposes: either to ask for a successful childbirth as many women died from giving birth in antiquity, to ask that they bear a strong and healthy son, fit to become a warrior of Sparta or to make offerings t o the goddess Aphrodite Hear, when their daughters were married. According to Plutarch, Ulcerous stated that only women who had died giving birth would be allowed to have a marked grave – further archaeological evidence reinforces this custom.This shows how important childbirth was to the Spartan in that â€Å"only women who lost their lives to perpetuate the state were honored as heroes. † Yet it is also possible that the female-shaped figurines represented the understanding of importance and deep respect for the ‘maternal figure' in Spartan religion – as the Spartan took up many female gods from Greek mythology. At the temple of Athena of the Bronze House there are numerous bronze tastes of Athena and Aphrodite, typifying the importance of matriarchal figures in Spartan religion.

Friday, September 13, 2019

There is two questions. And i will place them in instruction later Essay

There is two questions. And i will place them in instruction later. Because there is words limitation - Essay Example not just restricted to the textual analysis domain, but can also be used on various areas like coding of students’ drawings or actions that are observed in various videotaped studies. Krippendorff (2009) says that therefore, one can conclude that the content analysis process is a big motivator to the researcher, who often looks for techniques that he can use is in inferring from different forms of symbolic data, which would have been very costly to undertake, obstructive or quite impossible if other techniques would have been used. In order to get the desired results it is important that the researcher understands the steps to be followed in doing the content analysis process. First, the researcher has to understand the process itself comprehensively before beginning on the following steps listed below. The decision to use the content analysis process in the research process should be preceded by clear objectives, which outline the kinds of questions to be answered. The development of these questions should be based on the prevailing needs of the project, as well as the data available. Precisely, it is important to realize that worded questions are very effective in providing the right focus for the data collection process, analysis, as well as reporting. The content analysis process is effective in answering questions involving â€Å"what?† and not â€Å"why?† in this regard, it is very essential in assisting analysts in describing and summarizing written material content, attitudes as well as the perceptions that the writer had, including its effects on the targeted audience. Before the decision to use the content analysis process, the project staff is supposed to effectively assess all the written materials in order to determine their quality. They need to find out if the material available is an actual representation of the written material or what is said. Any material that has some missing information cannot be used effectively in the analysis process.

Thursday, September 12, 2019

Business memorandum Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Business memorandum - Assignment Example 99). Therefore, Case 1 tries to evaluate the results of lowering credit sales from 75% of total sales to 60% with 20% of next months projected cost of goods sold being inventory at the end of each preceding month. Moreover cash payments during the same month are put at a modest 20% of total purchases. Consequently, these changes amount to various adjustments; the cash receipts budget records a positive inflation to $2,769,808 from $2,734,060. Moreover, summary cash budget also records a significant rise to $738,578 from $51,908. Case 2 evaluates the effect of a rise in credit sales collected during the month of sale from 10% to 15%, and also the effect of raising a month’s payment purchases from 40% to 50% within the month of purchase. This then results in an increase of the cash receipts budget from $2,734,060 till $2,769,808 while showing a drop in the cash budget to $46,102 from $51,908. The final case, Case 3, tries to simulate the possible result of a drop in requirements of equipment purchases from $250,000 down to $100,000. This alteration affects only the summary cash budget which inflates to the $205,658 mark. The first thing that the management should think of is ways of decreasing cost so as to maximize on profits and overall revenue. This can be attained through plummeting credit sales and also minimizing expenditure on the purchase of equipment. By doing this, the overall operating costs will reducing meaning that there will be more capital to be invested back into the business consequently leading to increased growth (Blais 2011, p.

Wednesday, September 11, 2019

Importance of Internal and Strategic Communication to the Business Essay

Importance of Internal and Strategic Communication to the Business World - Essay Example Strategic communication entails the concerns necessary for an organization to be successful and generate their competitive advantage. Therefore, the long-term objectives need to be defined in a managerial perspective, which is linked to the survival of an organization. There are theories such as Entrepreneurial Organization Theories of the firm, which tends to combine both endogenous together with exogenous outlook to generate organizational competitive advantage. At the same time, the theories provide essential insights into communication roles in the organization management and also enhancement of communication constituting components. On the other hand, the Entrepreneurial Paradigm tries to identify strategic communication components to support the achievement of organizational objectives. The strategic contribution in relation to communication in an organization plays four major roles, which are aligning, visioning, constituting and energizing activities. The alignment dimension of strategic communication takes into consideration environmental scanning, boundary spanning, bridging and engaging ones. Corporate communication tends to hold a privilege in terms of observation and interpretation of the context, which any organization operates. Entrepreneurship requires social interaction to generate support and shape development of new ideas. Such an approach entails the building of bridges in an organization and  is considered necessary among stakeholders to activate and facilitate both involvement and participation. Internal strategic communication embraces engaging with stakeholders to develop solid relations and lasting partnership.