Saturday, August 31, 2019

Benefits of Distance Learning Essay

The benefits of distance learning are apparent as distance learning aims at meeting student’s needs. The offered outline is composed according to student’s needs and abilities. The most important factor affecting many future students who are willing to study is financial problems. Therefore firstly they consider financial benefits of any type of learning. Ability to take part-time job along with ability to save money plays an important role in choosing studying course. Students having financial problems also consider benefits in time management and distance learning gives the opportunity to study when it is convenient for a student. Therefore time management benefits have to follow financial ones. Furthermore, effectiveness of studying process is also a matter of concern for future students. Ability to correspond with teachers and other students via e-mail, telephone and chat rooms offers wide range of studying opportunities. Constant access to on-line libraries and data bases affects student’s choice. Students having full-time and part-time jobs would be able to pass exams during their available time. Finally, social benefits take the last place, because considerations about financial and studying benefits are more important in modern society as education is very expensive and one firstly thinks abut the ability to pay for the course and only then about the opportunities to lead social life. References Distance Learning Benefits. (2005). Retrieved October, 27, 2006, from http://www. distance-learning-college-guide. com/distance-learning-benefits. html

Friday, August 30, 2019

Policy Recommendation Essay

The difficulty with any definition of poverty involves the meaning of minimum needs and the amount of money required to satisfy these needs. (Ansel M. Sharp, 2010) Those in poverty sometimes face an additional obstacle to earning an adequate income. Discrimination as we use it means that equals are treated unequally or that the ‘unequal’s are treated equally. Discrimination exists in the labor market when people with equal productivity are paid different wages or people with differences in productivity are paid equal wages. Discrimination can also exist in the product market when consumers pay different prices for the same product. (Ansel M. Sharp, Evidence of Discrimination in Our Economy, 2010) Discuss the major impact to society of the problem. In 2001, some six-point-eight million families, or nine-point-two percent of all families, lived in poverty. This translates into more than thirty-two-point-nine million individuals, a staggering number to many Americans who have never been personally touched by poverty. Indeed, some have characterized those who live in poverty as the hidden poor. Studies have shown that there is a significant turnover in the poverty population: Families and single individuals move into and out of poverty several times throughout the years in response to significant life events. Although no reliable estimate exists for the number of hardcore poverty cases, the incidence of poverty can be easily seen to vary dramatically across a number of demographic characteristics. (Ansel M. Sharp, What is Poverty? , 2010) Just imagine searching through heaping piles of refuse at landfills, looking for anything that could seem partly edible, to satisfy an unending hunger. Many people around the world face this situation every day of their lives. What could have caused a situation like this to occur? The education and skill level, health or handicap status, and discrimination play a vital role in poverty. A major factor determining whether someone will end up living in poverty, education or skill level can make or break an income. Education plays a vital role in acquiring jobs, learning new skills, and bringing home necessities and comforts of life. A person who doesn’t receive an education has a very small chance of making much money and acquiring skills that would bring home a desirable income. Many who do not have an education bring their family into a cycle of poverty, where their posterity doesn’t necessarily have the income to go to college or even don’t have a desire to acquire a high school diploma. Poverty rates are higher among families with only one parent or head of household present. Poverty is also related to age, those very young and those very old have higher rates of poverty than those in their prime and middle-age years. The economic cause of poverty is family incomes depend on the quantities of resources that families can place in employment and the prices received for those resources. To understand poverty, then, it is important to understand what determines the prices paid for human and capital resources and what determines the quantities that can be employed. Under competitive market conditions, the basic principle of wage rate determination is that units of any kind of labor tend to be paid a price equal to any one worker’s contribution to an employer’s total receipts. In other words, workers are paid about what they are worth to employers. What a worker is worth to an employer is referred to by economists as the marginal revenue product of labor. (Ansel M. Sharp, The Economic Causes of Poverty, 2010) Market discrimination may be traced to two primary sources. These are the power to discriminate in the market and the desire to discriminate. In our complex market economy, the wages of workers vary widely. Even workers hired by the same employer to perform similar jobs are often paid different wage rates. The meaning of wage discrimination is clear enough: unequal pay for equal contributions. But proving discrimination depends on being able to distinguish among individuals on the basis of individual efforts and productivity. Generally, humans are paid pproximately what they are worth in a competitive economy. (Ansel M. Sharp, Evidence of Discrimination in Our Economy, 2010) Employment discrimination means that some people are not hired because of non-economic characteristics such as race or gender. Two individuals with the same training, education, and experience apply for a job, however one is black and one is white. If both do not have the same chance of getting the job, discrimination has entered into the decision-making process. There is a growing belief that discriminatory differences in pay, especially gender differences in pay, occur largely because of occupational segregation. In general, men work in occupations that employ very few women, and women work in occupations that employ very few men. The economic results of occupational segregation for women are low wages. Women are often relegated to occupations where productivity and experience have little to do with their status and where opportunities for overtime and premium pay are limited. Price discrimination occurs when people of different races or genders are forced to pay different prices for the same good or service, provided the differences are not due to differences in cost of serving the consumer. (Ansel M.

Thursday, August 29, 2019

Aiding Children of Drug and Alcohol Addicted Parents and Siblings

As the child gets older, he or she becomes aware of the existence of many things that would help him or her to become a mature individual. In other words, the society will have a very important role in molding the youth to become responsible people in the future.However, regardless of a better society, the child learns at home first before he or she becomes exposed to what the society can teach to him or her. If the parents or siblings are taking illegal drugs, the health and well-being of the child will definitely be affected (Parenting and Child Health).Addiction to drugs and alcohol would affect the development of the child and the possibility of being a drug user in the future is high (Marina & McKeganay 554).There are many consequences in drug addiction of a member of the family. It may lead to domestic violence and may cause depression to the child (Hope Networks). Moreover, the child may imitate the acts of taking alcohol and using drugs in the future (Zuckerman et al 758).Man y proposals have been suggested to lessen the cases of violence due to drug abuse but the society often end up facing the dilemma of having too many people that keep on taking alcohol improperly and using illegal drugs.Even the government has amended laws to reduce the number of children that are victims of the consequences of drug use (Keheller et al 1586). One of the most popular techniques of reducing the problems with drugs and alcohol is the family treatment. The family having a problem with drugs is being treated in order to avoid the possible family conflicts in the future (Miller 1046).Drug addiction is often being paid attention only when the member of the family is already affected. Many health professionals may have been successful in treating the victims of alcohol and drug addiction which made people realized that problems brought by alcohol and drugs can easily be fixed (Fleming 95).This perception is one of the most common misconceptions of the society regarding socie tal problems. The society often fails to realize that the treatment can be most effective before the result of drug addiction takes place. In other words, people should answer the problems of drugs and alcohol even before the society gets affected by its consequences.

Wednesday, August 28, 2019

The Task Force for Corrections Term Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2750 words

The Task Force for Corrections - Term Paper Example These approaches have been proven ineffective because they ignored the empirical evidence on what effects offender change. As Latessa, Cullen & Gendreau (2002) note, these practices are examples of â€Å"correctional quackery.† Second, after reviewing existing evidence, the report recommends that rehabilitation should be Ohio’s guiding correctional theory. In this regard, this report initially examines the limits of competing approaches. Following this discussion, the case for reaffirming rehabilitation is presented. The principle of just deserts and retribution should be sufficient to deter an offender from committing a crime. This is not saying that incarceration is an effective deterrent to crime or offending. The fact that crimes and offending have been increasing despite the punishments and incarcerations associated with crimes and offending should be adequate enough to show that incarceration has a limited effect on deterrence. According to Muhlhausen (2010), the principle of deterrence seeks to make crimes costly so fewer crimes can occur. On examining the incarceration data of 1972-1993, however, Lynch concluded (1999, p. 359) that imprisonment provides â€Å"no evidence of deterrence at the aggregate level for the US† on crimes (1999, p. 359). According to Lynch (1999), the conclusion remained true even if cross-sectional analysis are used for crime and imprisonment trends for 1980 through 1991. Rehabilitation focuses on the character of the offender. Both offenders and non-offenders alike live in a society where they are not observed 100% of the time. Control-oriented programs do not change the character of the offender. On this alone, control-oriented supervision programs will fail as supervisors lose control over the offender, especially after having served prison time. The principle right after just desert and retribution cannot be incapacitation because incapacitation is adequately covered in the principle of just deserts

Tuesday, August 27, 2019

Analyzing organizational change action plan Research Paper

Analyzing organizational change action plan - Research Paper Example It is imperative that a complete overhaul of the organizational structure is undertaken to reorganize it to fit the emerging changes. The alteration in this case will cut across the interests of all the stakeholders of the firm. Just to highlight the parties to the changes, the firm will start with the top management’s demutualization, introduction of new teams or systems, change agents and project implementation teams. The managing director of Landmark health care has been championing for the expansion of the firm and the point of emphasis is on change of plan of action. The issue of change is always characterized by uncertainty in terms of the future effects that follow the implementation of the proposed changes. However, a better future for the stakeholders of this health facility depends on the change in the structure of the management (Hill and Jones, 2013). On the side of administration, Landmark health care needs to cut down on the cost of running the organization through the large sums of money paid as salaries to the top management. To achieve this, the firm is engaged in consultative talks with human resource experts before considering eliminating some positions and introducing new ones. Decision making has been the bottle neck in attainment of the firm’s goals. This problem has been caused by a complex management framework and a lengthy chain of command which in turn has lead to a lot of bureaucracy. Some positions are redundant and just costly with negligible contribution to the performance of the firm hence their removal (Nanus & Dobbs, 1999). The leadership structure that Landmark health care requires must be visionary, open minded and tolerant to different opinions during decision making. A new team of managers that can propel this firm to greater heights must get rid of subjective decision but instead bring everybody on board when discussing matters of common interest so that the concept of objectivity comes in. This is one of the

Consequences of Neoliberalism. Economic Consequences of Neoliberalism Essay

Consequences of Neoliberalism. Economic Consequences of Neoliberalism - Essay Example Neoliberalism supports maximum role of the private sector in determining the dimensions of the political and economic policies and priorities of a country (Klak, 1998, p76). Neoliberalism stresses upon the shift of control from the public to the private sector because it is based upon the belief that the greater involvement of public sector will allow efficient government and eventually the overall economic condition will also be improved by giving more control to the private sector. Neoliberalism proposes some crucial principles and policy proposals for transforming the traditional economic system (Touraine, 2001, p11). Neoliberal approach asserts that deficits should be avoided and used only for occasional stabilization purpose because large deficits little effect upon the employment level of the country whereas constant deficits generate high inflation and lower productivity. Similarly, this approach also demands transformation in the taxation system, floating exchange rate, redir ection of public spending towards infrastructure development, education and healthcare etc. Privatization of the state enterprises is an important proposition of neoliberal approach because it is demonstrated by the neoliberal theorists that privatization will promote competition and increase the choices available to the people in several sectors like banking and telecommunication etc. Trade liberalization is proposed by suspending the regulations that act as barrier in market entry and restrict competition in the sector. These basic principles draw some very important and transformational impacts upon the societies and economies and after the implementation of neoliberal policies the world community has experiences some significant and critical impacts of this approach within their political and social system. The global spread of neoliberalism indicates its wide acceptance and popularity across the world however, despite this approbation there is consistent increase in the questio ns raised against neoliberal policies and the claimed benefits of this ideology have also frequently been challenged. There is mixed support for the neoliberal policies among the developed nations of the world and their economies and societies also reflect its benefits whereas the developing countries are not as open towards the neoliberalism as developed ones. The neoliberal policies are often challenged and questioned at global level. It is widely argues that neoliberalism has brought several positive and negative consequences to the economic, political and social systems of the countries. These consequences differ from country to country depending upon the level of enactment of the neoliberal policies. The consequences of neoliberalism could be examines from social, political and economic point of views because the systems of different countries have been responded towards neoliberal policies in distinct manner (Chomsky, 1999, p32). In the modern economic system the neoliberal po licies are often challenged by the new institutional economics and evolving concepts of economies of information, risk and uncertainty. In developed countries like U.S and U.K. neoliberalism is often blamed for damaging the social safety nets whereas the developing nations including some African countries complain that adopting neoliberalism policies provide little benefit to their economies and there is inclusive or significant contribution made by these policies to the economic, social and political growth of these countries. In fact, it is also claimed that neoliberal policies have negatively affected the development policies and growth process initiated before the

Monday, August 26, 2019

Racial Profiling Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Racial Profiling - Essay Example More recently the word racial profiling has been attached to that activity. The thought is to single out blacks and other racial groups in a hope of preventing crime. It later became an accepted practice and racial profiling was actually invested in by some police agencies. It did not become a cause for alarm until around 2002 when the first legal suits were perused by those who felt they had been discriminated against. This led to the need to take a second look at the practice. With all of the legal action that was taking place came the outrage of citizens who believed that minorities were being treated badly by police. This led to police keeping track of the race of people that they pulled over. Study of that data showed that truly there was a problem. Further study by others followed, including the study done by George Higgins and team (2009) on the influence of race in traffic stops. "By the time police Sgt. Robert Motyka responds to the disturbance call at a local hospital emergency room, the man at the reception counter is clearly agitated. His speech is unintelligible. He becomes frantic as the officer slowly approaches, urging him to calm down. In a blur of flailing arms, the man reaches for something in his back pocket. Motyka has no time to consider the possible consequences of one of the most potentially combustible scenarios in America: a confrontation between a black man and a white officer. When the man pulls a knife and lunges forward, Motyka drops him with four quick pops from his 9mm Beretta. But there will be no public second-guessing of the 13 year veteran's actions. In this case, Motyka was reacting to a large-screen video simulation."(Johnson, 2009). This department has a shooting range realistic demo that allows decision making to take place in a few seconds just like on the street. What can be done to improve the racial profiling that is built into police business today This is a possible partial solution. The rest is cultural training that needs to take place in the departments. People somehow feel more threatened when a couple of black students are standing on a corner than white students. Is the dress or is it lack of cultural understanding. Fear comes from lack of understanding and fear leads to wrong decision. Conclusion In conclusion, racial profiling is unfortunately a part of our culture, not just that of the police department. To overcome it, we must overcome our lack of understanding of the other culture. This is happening at some level although it still has a long way to go. In the meantime, like the simulations above practice at a better response is important. Is there ever a time when racial profiling is ok. This writer says probably not, while you are watching the black guy in the car, the white guy will shoot you. When it comes to doing police work all suspects deserve suspicion. References Higgins, G., Gabbidon, S., Gennary, V., Exploring the influence of race relations And public safety concerns on public support for racial profiling during traffic stops. Journal of Police Science and Management. Vol. 12. 1 Johnson, Kevin (2009). In a switch, police invite scrutiny of racial profiling USA Today. Retrieved

Sunday, August 25, 2019

Legalizition of Recreational Drugs Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Legalizition of Recreational Drugs - Essay Example In fact, the Eskimos are the only people lacking tradition because they have been unfortunate to grow anything and wait for other people to bring them alcohol. The use of drug is justified in that it represents human appetite. The question of drug legalization either for medicinal or recreational value refers to whether or not people should be allowed to legally sell, buy, and use drugs for their own personal pleasure. Human beings have used psychoactive drugs as back as many centuries ago. Many drugs are produced naturally by plants and easily accessed by people in society where they grow. Therefore, recreational drugs should be legalized in society and stop criminalization of people. If recreational are not legalized, criminalizing this drugs will cause more harm than good since it will create large profitable industry which supply these drugs. In addition, it will increase level of crime in society when people try to finance habits of the users. Psychoactive drugs have been incorp orated in social events such as celebrations, religious ceremonies, and rites of passage. When discussing the issue of recreational drugs, it is sensible to talk about the harm associated with these drugs. Drugs can be taken on regular basis with no ill basis but long-term exposure and intake of drugs is harmful. Majority of people die from drug induced causes such as organ damage, heart attack, and even overdose. Apart from the self-inflicted harm, there is harm that is caused to others in society such as increased crime rate from users who cannot control their system since drugs consumed inhibits their legitimate decisions. Theft and muggings are commonly associated with addiction and women who are under the influence of drugs would engage in prostitution without their own convictions to do so. Children born in families where parents are drug user’s end up homeless while family resources are depleted. The idea of selling and using drugs has both legal and moral issues. On o ne hand, if the government legalized the use of drugs in society, we can deduce whether application of such drugs is immoral or not. If the law allows an individual to engage or do certain things, it does not mean that the person should do it. On the other hand, even if use of drugs is not morally acceptable we can question ourselves whether the use of such drugs is illegal or not. The law has many flaws in that it allows us to do many things that are immoral such as saying lies to other people. These are some of the things that people should avoid morally; we do not tolerate situations where the laws command us on how to lead private lives (Clifford 52-53). The whole purpose and motive of using recreational drugs is for pleasure that they produce to the user. Search for pleasure comes natural to us as human beings. It is human nature that people are pleasure seeking and what makes life enjoyable is in pleasure of larger variety. There are pleasures in food, drugs, or romance. This way brain chemistry is altered in manner that provides unique pleasure to our body and through this; we seek what can bring pleasures in our lives (Clifford 55). Human beings seek pleasure in moderation, whereby pursuing pleasure is morally acceptable

Saturday, August 24, 2019

Strengths and Weaknesses of Internal and External Recruitment Essay

Strengths and Weaknesses of Internal and External Recruitment - Essay Example This essay describes today’s dynamic companies needs to adapt swiftly to the changing environment. Often the human resources department is required to fill vast number of jobs as the company develops new markets and pursues new strategies. New positions tend to require specialized skill sets while new management philosophies look for softer skills such as interpersonal skills. To complicate the matter further, today’s employees are more likely to change jobs, due to the availability of myriad opportunities. The researcher focuses on describing of the process of th human resources department that must define the job requirements, advertise the position, sort though the applicants and choose the best candidates effectively and efficiently. The most successful recruitment depends on the amount of preparation before the actual process. There are many ways to attract a pool of suitable applicants that are described in the essay. The method chosen depends on the time and reso urces the organisation can afford and the nature of the business. This can be accomplished by weighing the knowledge level, skills etc. of the required candidate to fill the job, how much training he will require, and how much value add the candidate would bring to the table. Investing the time and resources in getting a successful recruit represents sound business practice. Above all, the researcher states that being an employer of choice is a reputation that recruiters need to build within their industries and that is a powerful tool in attracting top talent.

Friday, August 23, 2019

Foundations of European Law Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3500 words

Foundations of European Law - Essay Example The EU’s powers of decision making and the operation of its institutions have invited widespread criticism1. Critics argue that there is no democracy in the EU and they attribute this to the functions of EU and its institutes. There are several baseless arguments that attempt to affix the label of democratic deficit on the EU. However, democratic deficit can arise, only if there is no transparency, a lack of consensus, paucity of trust, absence of a social justice system and no accountability2. The European Union is said to be democratically deficit because the executive power is completely vested in the European Commission, which is not an elected body. The Commission enjoys widespread powers in the EU, and it is the decision maker and organiser of the matters in the EU. It proposes and executes the legislation in the EU3. The important legislative organ of the Commission is the Council of Ministers. This Council is not accountable to anyone and is beyond the scrutiny of the Member States. All the Member States of the EU are required to adopt the euro as their sole currency. Member States are also required to adopt the directives and regulations issued by the EU and integrate them in their national legislation4. A referendum was held in the year 2005, which had proposed a constitution for the European Union. The citizens of France and Holland opposed the enactment of a constitution for the EU. The constitution was later incorporated in the Lisbon treaty, in October 2007. The United Kingdom opposed the proposed transfer of greater power to the European Union. The Lisbon Treaty proposed a president and a foreign minister for the EU, a supreme court, a civil administration system, a flag and anthem, a Charter of Fundamental Rights for the citizens of Europe, an extension in majority voting, more powers to make treaties and a specific clause, the Passerelle clause, which fortifies the

Thursday, August 22, 2019

A Description of the Sumerian Society Essay Example for Free

A Description of the Sumerian Society Essay ?Sumerian society migrated into the Middle East and settled in the Mesopotamian area around 4000 B. C. E. , resulting in the settlement of that civilization. Sumerians contributed the city-states concept, created an essential writing system, strengthened their connection to their religion, and also recorded the world’s oldest story. The addition to Sumer’s city-states idea had a booming affect in their political structure. They were more organized than most political systems in other civilizations. With this, the Sumerian society was able to regulate religion and enforce laws in a better manner. Their concept later became a tradition of regional rule, basically creating an early bureaucracy for other societies to adopt and learn from. After several centuries of Sumer’s settlement, writing, the most significant invention in millennia’s, was introduced into Sumerian society. Although it was very sudden, the addition to such a revolutionary idea made their culture even more prosperous. Things led to another, and soon enough, the Sumerian society had an entire alphabet that was referred to as cuneiform, in the palm of their hands. They began to record their history and culture, later resulting in the world’s oldest story, the Epic of Gilgamesh and much more from their culture. Sumer’s introduction to cuneiform bloomed into an economical boost throughout their entire society. Their invention helped to promote trade and manufacturing. They were able to communicate much more flawlessly, leading to trades as far as India. Not only did it support the trading system, but it did wonders in recording much of Sumerian history. Sumer’s settlement meant many prosperous things. Their ideas and inventions of cuneiform, city-states, ziggurats, job specialization, etc. , led to great achievements that other civilizations adopted and duplicated.

Wednesday, August 21, 2019

Web or Mobile Application Essay Example for Free

Web or Mobile Application Essay JP Morgan Chase Mobile Bank application is one of the most important applications I have in my iPhone. Chase has created a new way of banking with their application. It is user friendly, it offers amazing capabilities, it is a time and money saver, and it has room for improvement. Chase has brought banking into our hands. The purpose of the application is to make banking for their customers stress-free. With this application customers can deposit checks from their iPhone, iPad, iPod touch, Android, Kindle Fire, and Windows Phone. All they do is input the amount of the check, take a front and back picture of the check and click submit. Customers can also view their banking and credit card balances and transaction history. Customers can transfer money between Chase and non-Chase accounts, in different ways. They offer Transfer Money, Wire Transfer, and Chase QuickPay. I just used the QuickPay feature today. My little sister bought my tickets to Lollapalooza so I paid her back through QuickPay. In order for the money to get deposit to her account, we both have to enrolled in the Person-to-Person QuickPay. Once we both signed up, I type her e-mail or phone number and the amount to transfer and submit it. Once sent, she approves the transaction, and it is complete. I am also able to pay bills with the application. This feature is truly helpful; I set up reminders on my phone to remind me of when my payments are due. When my reminder goes off, at that moment I log in to my Chase application and make the payment on the spot. I do not have to wait to get home because if I do I would forget to make it and I am charge with the late fees. Another capability is being able to find the closest branch or ATM near me. All this is possible with a smartphone and a tablet. The Chase bank application is a time and money saver. I was in the Army and I had been station in places where Chase branches or ATMs are not close to me. Right now, I live in Copenhagen, Upstate NY, which is about half an hour from Ft Drum. The closes Chase branch or ATM to me is in Syracuse, which is about an hour and a half away. Being able to have access to my account on the palm of my hand is amazing. Not having to set a foot on the bank has saved me time, gas and money. Time is very important to me and the way I pend it is written down in my planner. I do not have the time or the money to drive and wait in line. In the time it would take me to drive to the branch and back home, I could watch a movie with my family or do some homework. This application has really made my life a little easier In a likely future that I want to see added to this application would have to be like a check balance book. This feature would help me see where my money goes. Just by taping an icon I can see how much did I spend on Tuesday, how much money do I have left in my account, when do I get paid, am I getting closed to overdraft. I know this is my responsibility, but it would be nice to have my own personal accountant. Another possible addition could be being able to send and receive e-mails to and from Chase. I think these two features can help Chase improve and be ahead of other banks. ‘JPMorgan Chase has yet again won a ranking of mobile banking apps. In this one, Keynotes semiannual mobile banking scorecard, Chase came in first for the third time in a row’, ‘†¦its analysts score the apps according to 120 criteria in four categories functionality, ease of use, privacy and security, and quality and availability’ (Penny Crosman, 2013). I remember when every Saturday I will had to go to the bank to make a deposit of my checks, and having to fill up the deposit slip. Just the waiting in line used to irritate me. Being able to access my account, pay bills and make deposits without having to set a foot inside a bank is incredible. Chase Mobile definitely has changed the way their customers and I bank!

Tuesday, August 20, 2019

Analysis of Alcohol Advertising in the UK

Analysis of Alcohol Advertising in the UK Advertising for the UK alcoholic sector has gained far stricter guidelines and regulations over the last few decades. Do you agree that the advertising of alcohol should be restricted to such an extent and how far do you believe any governments should be able to control advertising? Introduction According to this essay, the controling in alcoholic advertising by government will be examined. In past few years, the alcoholic advertising became more and more stricter in Britain, also the government had been established more guidelines and regulations. The essay will be divided into three main parts. First, the background of advertisig of UK should be introduced. Second, the arguments for the government should or shouldn’t be restricted will be discussed, it will be explained that why the alcoholic advertising should be constrained. Then, how much should the government be involved in advertising will be suggested, and the reasons of any governments should try them best to control some types of advertising will be listed. Main Body And these actions may bring about intense reactions in society of UK, some groups like alcohol manufacturers and alcohol beverage sellers will disagree the release of these regulations and guidelines. But most people agree that the advertising of alcoholic beverage should be restrained. First of all, the background of advertisement of UK should be introduced, it can be divided into many types, including TV advertisements, radio advertisements, advertisements on newspapers or journals and so on. As for the supervision of advertisements, it includes the Broadcast Advertising Clearance Centre(BACC), TV operators and Advertising Standards Authority(ASA). And in TV ads in UK, alcohol products advertising occupy the quite large percent, so there are so many rules to restrict those ads, for instance, the new ads rules clearly indicate that the alcohol ads can not have the contents of seducing youngsters to drink alcohol or alcohol abuse, and those ads which have connection with alcohol and sex also should be forbidden. And these such restrict rules continue to expand space, and Code of Advertising Standards of Behaviour points out that those young sports celebrities, pets and even cartoon characters should not be in the ads of alcohol beverages.(Leng, 2005). Every coin has it two sides. Some people think government shouldn’t be restricted in advertising, likes some groups or corporations, which involve in the relevant alcohol beverages manufacturing and selling activities, because these rules and regulations will make them lose profits. But most of people agree with that the culture of drinking in UK is ingrained. Too much alcoholic advertising would result in cut-throat competition. There has a long history about the tradition of drinking culture, and pubs can be seen everywhere. The popularity of social media even promote the intrusive of alcoholic advertisements, nowdays, the advertisement plays an significant roles in many aspects in our lives, it effects the consumer psychology, which could stimulate consumers to purchase their products through these advertisements, especially those young people are impulsive, they can be easily seduced to purchase products like alcoholic beverage. The children about 10 and 11-year-olds are m ore likely to recognize Carlsberg lager than Ben Jerrys ice cream, and theyre more familiar with fictional characters in a Fosters beer commercial than with those from an ad for Cadbury chocolate. Alcohol is linked to a 25% increase in liver deaths in the past decade, and binge-drinking has become a problem for the middle-aged and middle-class as well as for out-of-control youth (HALL and EMMA, 2012). In a report on the governments alcohol strategy, the MPs said wider measures could be implemented in Britain that would ban all alcohol advertising on television, in cinemas and of sports events. (Rebecca Smith, 2012) the alcohol will bring more damage to mental and physical of human being, especially the behaviour of alcohol abuse will have great impact on people and the social security also will become more unstable. according to the statement of British Home Secretary Theresa May, taxpayers have to pay 21 billions pounds for drunkenness hazard a year, and one of the main reasons of that is the ads of alcohol beverage (, 2014). Henry Ashworth, Chief Executive of the Portman Group, said: UK drinks producers and retailers have a strong track record in delivering programmes of voluntary activity to support government in tackling anti-social behaviour caused by alcohol misuse. These can help avoid any cut-throat competition. Obviously, according to the trend of the times and the desire of the people, the alcohol beverage advertising will be restricted far, and more rules and regulations will be issued to restrained that. As to whether any government should be able to control the advertising, the answer is â€Å"yes† to some extent, and it should depend on the particular industry advertising, for instance, the tobacco and alcohol industries advertising which could trigger the bad effects to the society should be banned or restricted, and government should establish more detailed rules and regulations to constrain the illegal or inappropriate contents of advertising. And as to the fast development of economy and technology, the types of advertising become more diversification, like TV shopping. As the background of UK advertising supervision structure mentioned before, it is good example for other countries, especially for China, because it has three institutions to supervise the advertising, respectively are revising, improving â€Å"The Independent Television Commission standards of conduct for the advertising industry guidelines†, and then BACC will examine the advertising copy, after the broadcast of advertising, Advertising Standards Authority will monitor the reaction of society, deciding whether it should be off the air or not. For instance, as to China, because the lack of advertising monitoring system, leading to current situation of advertising which is disorder competition, there are some suggestions, the first is that developing the standards of advertising enterprises qualification, and second is that developing standards of advertising employees qualification. On the whole, China should strengthen the macro-control of the advertising industry, creating more healthy, harmony and sustainable environment of advertising. (Bi, 2010) Conclusion To sum up, the British have traditional drinking habits, which can bring more disadvantages, such as unsafe living condition and alcohol is bad for healthy. Any government should control the some types of advertising industry, which is bad for our bodies or bring terrible influence, and also promote some types of advertising, which could improve the international competitiveness and enhance the culture connotation. Given this, it can be concluded that this essay has shown the opinion about government in UK should restrict to the alcoholic advertising, any government should control the advertising industry appropriately. Reference: Advertising Age. /2012, Vol. 83 Issue 17, p9-9. 1/2p. HALL, EMMA SOBERING UP THE U.K. PROVES DIFFICULT. Alcohol Alcohol. 2009 May-Jun;44(3):229-43. doi: 10.1093/alcalc/agn115. Epub 2009 Jan 14. Impact of alcohol advertising and media exposure on adolescent alcohol use: a systematic review of longitudinal studies. Anderson P1, de Bruijn A, Angus K, Gordon R, Hastings G. Eur J Public Health. 2014 Aug;24(4):561-5. doi: 10.1093/eurpub/cku060. Epub 2014 May 21. Youth exposure to alcohol advertising on television in the UK, the Netherlands and Germany. Patil S1, Winpenny EM1, Elliott MN2, Rohr C1, Nolte E3. By Rebecca Smith, Medical Editor 7:00AM BST 19 Jul 2012 Ban on alcohol adverts should be considered: MPs Health Committee The Governments Alcohol StrategyWritten evidence from The Advertising Association (GAS 52) 2012 Alcohol industry takes action to tackle irresponsible drinking From: Home Office, Department of Health, The Rt Hon Norman Baker MP, Jane Ellison MP, The Rt Hon Jeremy Hunt MP and The Rt Hon Theresa May MP History: Published 8 July 2014 Part of: Reducing harmful drinking, Controlling the sale and supply of alcohol,Crime and policing, National Health Service and Public health Bi, B. (2010), What should the Government do for China’s advertising industry, [online] Available at:> [ Accessed 22nd July 2014]

The Role of Art in My Life Essays -- Personal Narrative

The Role of Art in My Life The arts have influenced my life in amazing ways. Throughout my life, art has been the place I run to and my escape from the world. As I’ve grown older, art has become so much more than that. Every piece of art I create is a journey into my soul. It’s a priceless way to deal with my emotions and my struggles. I create art not only because I enjoy it and because I want to, but because I have to. Somewhere deep inside there is a driving force, urging me to put my heart down on paper. I become emotionally attached to each of my pieces because they are like dashes on the wall marking my growth. Each one is the solution to a problem I have dealt with and overcome. The summer before my senior year, I participated in Ringling School of Art and Design’s Pre Coll...

Monday, August 19, 2019

United Nations Millennium Goal Essay -- World Issues, Interventions

Target C of the seventh United Nations Millennium Development Goal is to ‘halve, by 2015, the proportion of the population without sustainable access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation’ (UN, 2000). With our current model of sanitation, the flush toilet, we are simply unable to provide sanitation to everyone as the flush toilets are grossly inefficient, requiring large amounts of water and sewer infrastructure to function, two things increasing hard to possess in the developing world (Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, 2011). This lack of possession leads to defecation and urination into unsafe sources, such as nearby streams and rivers which also provide drinking water for these people. The unsafe urination and defecation increases the incidence of fecal-oral contamination and occurrences of other communicable diseases. It also forces the poor villagers to walk farther in search of uncontaminated water sources. Interventions and the redevelopment of the sanitation system can bring about many positive changes in developing countries where present knowledge and present development of sanitation is poor. Optimum benefit from water sanitation interventions can be achieved if the communities are made aware of the links between hygiene practices, poor sanitation, polluted water, and disease (UNHRC, 2011). The redevelopment of the sanitation system is essential for the third world countries; however, the global community must overcome challenges before implementation to ensure lasting success. The redevelopment of the sanitation system, particularly the reinvention of the toilet is an efficient and significant way of improving health and hygiene, and women’s education and personal safety. Currently, 40% of the world’s populati... ...blem of implementation by spending more money on education and actual procurement of the reinvented toilets rather than the administration. It is great to take the increased education of the developing country to our advantage by using the school children to spread the message about sanitation to their families and deep into their communities. School Environment and Sanitation and Rural India states that â€Å" The best way to break bad practices is to cultivate good practices and childhood is the best time for that as children are receptive to all influences† (Majra and Gur, 2010). From these two suggestions for implementation, it seems very logical that the global community should focus on providing access to proper sanitation facilities at schools and on providing water, hygiene, and environment education at primary schools to further spread the reinvented toilet.

Sunday, August 18, 2019

English Should Be the Official Language of the United States Essay

English as the official language of the United States could benefit the U.S. Government and America as a whole. America has long since been a multicultural nation and has been an English speaking nation since it was founded. The constitutional and federal documents are all in English, which furthers the American people, believing English should be our official language. The majority of states already have English as their official language, for English has always provided a much needed cohesion to our diverse citizens since it was founded. Being made of diverse peoples, and being able to continue to use your own language may seem preferable as we encourage individuality and do not want anyone to disappear into the soup. This stand, however, also means that more people are needed as interpreters and that more programs and information needs to be readily available to ensure understanding. More people would have jobs associated with interpretation, whether on paper or face-to-face, in order to deal with the transition. If English was the official language, instead of just having interpreters in public places, there would be opportunities to learn the language with classes, etc. Presently, immigrants expect to have to learn some of English to get by, while the children have to learn it on their own to survive in school. With English as an official language, we would feel compelled to offer help to those we expect to learn the language. In part of Canada, where there are two languages, children are taught both languages. If we had an official language we would be responsible for insuring that everyone gets a chance to learn the language. As seen in the statutes of Section 3-3-31 of the Mississippi code, â€Å"†¦the purpose (of the st... ...and/or immigrants, we would still be preserving the cultural heritage of early America. Works Cited Perea, Juan. Immigrants Out! The New Nativism and the Anti-Immigrant Impulse in the United States. New York or London: New York University Press, 1997. Print. Baron, Dennis. The English Language Amendment: Backgrounds And Prospects. 1988. ERIC. Web. 28 Nov. 2014. Daniels, Harvey A., and Urbana, IL. National Council of Teachers of English. Not Only English: Affirming America's Multilingual Heritage. 1990. ERIC. Web. 28 Nov. 2014. Lewelling, Vickie W., and Washington, DC. ERIC Clearinghouse on Languages and Linguistics. Official English And English Plus: An Update. ERIC Digest. 1997. ERIC. Web. 28 Nov. 2014. Crawford, James. Effective Language Education Practices and Native Language Survival. Reyhner, Jon. Montana:8m (NALI) Institute, 1990. Print.

Saturday, August 17, 2019

Advantages and disadvantages of the doctrine of precedent Essay

Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of the doctrine of precedent and how judges may make new law. Include 1 case where judges have made new law. The doctrine of precedent is an important feature of judge-made law (common law). This doctrine means that similar disputes should be decided by reference to the same legal principles, and that lower courts are bound to follow the decisions of higher courts within the same court hierarchy. There are both advantages and disadvantages of the doctrine of precedent and the way in which judges may make new law. An advantage of judge made law is that decisions are based on principle – meaning that judges are not making up the law as they go. The doctrine of precedent provides for consistency in the application of the law, which therefore promotes justice and fairness (as the courts will decide ‘like’ cases in the same way). There is also some degree of certainty, as the outcome of cases can be predicted based on previous decisions. The advantage of precedent is that it allows for the law to grow to meet new situations, and to be flexible to meet changing needs – which therefore provides for the efficient operation of the legal system. On the other hand, judge-made law is slow to evolve. The courts are not free to make law in the same sense as parliament. Unlike parliament, judges cannot make law as an immediate response to a community demand or when a general need is perceived. A disadvantage of precedent is that rigidity and inflexibility may develop where judges are reluctant to depart out-of-date or inappropriate precedents. Uncertainty can also arise where there is more than one precedent that may apply to a particular set of circumstances. Change may be slow and irregular because change can only occur when a complainant has a significant case that is subject to an appeal. Given the cost of litigation, not all complainants may be prepared to persist with a legal action under these circumstances. Also, the law develops retrospectively meaning that a problem must exist before the court will consider the circumstances – it does not operate to avoid possible conflicts. Landmark decisions (from which new principles develop) are few and far between. They usually arise from cases on appeal heard in the highest courts. An example of an Australian case where judges have made new law is Grant v. Australian Knitting Mills [1936] AC 85. This case involved similar  circumstances to the landmark case of Donoghue v Stevenson, [1932] AC 562. In this case the plaintiff, Dr. Grant, bought some woollen underwear from a store. The underwear had been manufactured by the Australian Knitting Mills Ltd. Dr. Grant suffered dermatitis as a result of wearing the woollen underwear. It was later discovered that the condition was caused by the excessive use of chemicals in the process used to make the underwear. According to the doctrine of precedent, the court would have applied the rule of law stated in Donoghue v. Stevenson to the case of Grant v. Australian Knitting Mills. Like Mrs. Donoghue, Dr. Grant was deemed to be a ‘neighbour’. He was a person who was closely and directly affected by the act of the manufacturer and the manufacturer ought to have had him in mind as being affected when preparing the underwear. The manufacturer had a duty to take reasonable care to avoid acts that they could reasonably foresee would be likely to injure consumers such as Dr. Grant. Dr. Grant was successful in his claim for damages. This was the first Australian case to adopt the legal principle of negligence. In summary, judges make laws by comparing similar situations and following sets of principles to determine outcomes. This is known as the doctrine of precedent and it creates common law – which has both advantages and disadvantages.

Friday, August 16, 2019

How Useful Are Sources A to C To Explain Why The United States Became Involved In The War In Vietnam?

Sources A-C gives us some insight into why the USA fought and got involved in Vietnam and reveals a number of reasons about Vietnam. I shall be reviewing each source from which I have stated above. Sources A, B and C. Source A is a primary public speech made by President Johnson (Lyndon Baines Johnson) in April 1965 just one month after the start of ‘Operation Rolling Thunder' helping to stop communism according to the provenance. In the speech Johnson is stating in the source, I quote â€Å"We fight in Vietnam because we have a promise to keep†. By this statement indeed Johnson did want his opinions to be heard and notified by his fellow American citizens, so they shall believe every word that comes out of Johnson's mouth. This was due to a promise being made by President Eisenhower when he was elected president in the year of 1953. Lyndon Johnson wishes all the Americans to trust in what he is saying to be 100% truthful and is trying to carry on regarding the promise made by Eisenhower and earn everyone's respect. The ‘Truman Doctrine' was also mentioned about. This is a list of every American President who had been elected in year 1948 to agree with a various amount of promises which they written then had to sign. Truman Doctrine was a promise they were fighting for â€Å"promised to help when there are any threats of communism†. So Johnson decided he wanted to do the same thing, so he signed and agreed once president. In the year of 1954, President Eisenhower and JFK started transporting â€Å"advisers† as the first president Kennedy would have wanted. From the tone of Johnson's words in the speech, you can tell he jus maybe talking in a religious manner and might even be a religious person within the speech. President Lyndon Johnson wants to reassure every single American citizen about the â€Å"Domino Theory†. This was a theory of a mid-20th century foreign policy theory. The title ‘Domino' is given to this theory because it can end up like a stack of dominos. This is because if you let one country fall to communism then each over country around that county would then soon follow falling one to another and become communism itself and Johnson was petrified of this happening. Lyndon Johnson is trying to make everyone go and fight in the Vietnam War. As most of the American citizens believed this is what would eventually happen if just one country did fall to communism and it's why Johnson is trying to justify himself. In the year of 1945 nearly all of all the American leaders all offered to help and give their own support of the Vietnam War. President Eisenhower was a well respected and great general of the war. There was one thing which was expected to be achieved or aimed said by President Johnson in the speech, I quote â€Å"the independence of the South and the freedom of the people of South Vietnam to guide their own country in their own way'. The Americans also think that they're available to strengthen â€Å"world order† because the U.S.A as democratic wanting to stop communism. Although there were two countries that relied on the Americans if they were at any point attacked which were ‘Thailand' and ‘Berlin'. If Vietnam was left to fight for itself, then it would increasingly look terrible on some of the promises which the Americans agreed with, due to American's believing it was their duty and their own right to fight for Vietnam. Johnson implied, I quote â€Å"to leave Vietnam to its fate would shake the value of an American commitment and in the value of America's word. The result would be instability and unrest, and even wider war†. I could say this source is being very biased, due to because Johnson is only giving his own opinion on what the American citizens want to hear, whilst he is keeping his real thoughts inside and not expressing his personal opinions. The source can be seen quite useful, but has limitations, as I have stated, it's a public speech where Johnson isn't really voicing his truths about what he thinks of Vietnam. To look at Johnson's person views, then I can begin to study source B. Source B is a private primary speech made by President Johnson in May 1964 according to the provenance. At this point in time, Lyndon Baines Johnson was only just elected president. With Johnson being V.P. (Vice President) he knew a lot regarding Vietnam and knew how everything worked. Lyndon Johnson became the thirty-seventh Vice President in the years from and to 1963-1965. Johnson was one of the major leaders of the ‘Democratic Party'. Also Lyndon Johnson was the one who were in charge of creating the â€Å"Great Society†. President Lyndon Baines in this private speech is discussing a number of things which includes criticizing most of his very own American citizens. I quote â€Å"I don't think the people of our country know much about Vietnam, and I think we care a hell of a lot less†. From Johnson stating these words, he is blatantly calling most of the American citizens dumb, thick and lack of knowledge about the Vietnam. With Johnson saying this, he has a very low profile on the American citizens and implies that the U.S.A cannot win the war. In public no-one would use the word â€Å"hell† like Johnson did in the speech, due to it being a southern religious Texan society which always stayed faithful and don't appreciate foul language such as swearing. Speaking in Private Johnson doesn't care what he is implying and doesn't have to bite his tongue to try and stop himself from voicing his very own opinions like he does when speaking out in public. As Johnson knows that none of the American citizens shall hear what he really thinks about them. In this source President Johnson is really voicing his opinions. You know this by Johnson saying, I quote â€Å"I don't think we can fight them ten thousand miles away from home, I don't think it's worth fighting for. What the hell is Vietnam worth to me?† Johnson is agreeing that the U.S.A need to stand up to communism, as Johnson is terrified of communism. Although, he is trying to get his personal views across which is stating Vietnam is not worth anything at all. It's like Lyndon Johnson isn't really concerned and couldn't care less about his people and about the Vietnam War. It's showing us that Johnson is scared and has fears of communism taking over the world as states and that the political consideration â€Å"Let's move on, let's go into the North† are just being selfish. We have to be very suspicious within this speech, as it hasn't been edited or tampered with and indeed if it's all whole trustworthy. Possibly was it taped? As it has been to believed that since President Johnson been president in the white house his office was monitored by everything that had been said by recorders. But is this really reliable and exactly what U.S.A. President Lyndon Baines Johnson really said? As I have stated before it can be edited in various ways making things sound different from what has actually been said, which could make this source a limitation. Source C is a secondary speech of a modern writer interview with Professor Noam Chomsky, an American critic of the war in October 1982 according to the provenance underneath the extract. The interview is talking about political reasons of the U.S.A and how they went to war which was to dominate Vietnam. Also to discontinue South Vietnam from independence and indeed there was an attack on South Vietnam from the U.S.A. Professor Noam Chomsky says, I quote, â€Å"The U.S. did not want an independent South Vietnam that was no longer dominated by America. It feared that South Vietnam might be able to reform and improve itself – develop it's economy- and that might work†. Chomsky is being biased due to him being an anti-American, and is therefore being biased towards the American country. To sum up the conclusion of sources A-C all have value and limitations. In my view source B is most useful as it's a private speech where Johnson is criticizing most of his own American citizens by using negative comments and is saying what he really thinks about Vietnam along with the citizens plus America. Once this private speech with Johnson's personal opinions and views about Vietnam, the tape was then exposed to everyone. Therefore source B is definitely the most useful out of them all.

Thursday, August 15, 2019

Comparing and contrasting three poems that portray the yearning to belong Essay

We all long to be a part of something and to feel accepted, irrespective of age, culture and society. Similarly, Stephen Spender’s poem, â€Å"My Parents kept Me from Children who were Rough†, Moniza Alvi’s â€Å"An Unknown Girl† and Phyllis McCormack’s â€Å"Crabbit Old Woman† talk about how each of the poets long to be a part of a certain society or culture, and this longing outlines the underlying theme across all three poems. My Parents kept Me from Children who were Rough is about childhood bullying and regret. The narrator experiences bullying at a young age and I sense a feeling of regret as the poet wished he could be a part of the group of rough boys. I get the impression that the narrator, now at his adult stage, feels that he did not make the most of his childhood, and this was perhaps due to class differentials. Whereas, Moniza Alvi’s poem reveals how the narrator had left her hometown at a young stage and when she returns, she yearns to be a part of it. I believe she finds it difficult to reconcile her roots with her foreign lifestyle and falls under the dilemma where she is forced to choose one life, despite her strong desire for both. We get a contrasting idea in Crabbit Old Woman, as it is a plea to break free from the stereotypical image of old people. The old woman feels that she is being judged unfairly because her body has crumbled. She expresses how her soul remains intact, and would like the nurses to realize that her â€Å"battered heart swells† with undiscovered vivacity. All the three poems have an underlying theme of belonging. My parents†¦ is about how the narrator â€Å"longed† to fit in with the group of bullies. The world being so brutal, made growing up hard for the narrator. At a young age, the narrator probably needed to feel wanted and important and hence, wanted to be part of a group. There are many other significant themes present, such as a theme of childhood bullying, as the narrator fears the boys who had â€Å"muscles like irons†. A theme of regret, coupled with loneliness is distinguished, as the poet â€Å"longed to forgive† the bullies, but never had the chance. The constant use of â€Å"I† and â€Å"Me† tells the readers how the poet was lonesome. Therefore, I get the impression that the poem is written based on a bitter childhood memory. I feel sorry for the poet as he was made fun of for his â€Å"lisp† and the bullies’ â€Å"salt-coarse pointing†, which seems to have a ffected the poet’s life greatly, even throughout his adult phase. Similarly, in An unknown girl, the poet wants to belong to her native community, which she once left behind. There is a theme of admiration, as her fascination for the â€Å"evening bazaar studded with neon† is clearly depicted. In addition to that, a theme of self-identity is found, as the poet is desperately trying to find herself through her roots. She is â€Å"unknown† to herself. Whereas, the narrator in Crabbit Old Woman wants to belong in a world and society untouched by the evils of stereotype. She would like to feel accepted and gain the same respect as everybody else. She hopes the â€Å"nurses† would include her in their world, and would look beyond her physical inabilities, in order to admire and recognise the beautiful life she has lived and experienced. Alongside that central theme, a great deal of regret is conveyed, as the narrator immensely resents the way she is stereotyped, and hopes to prove that she is still young at heart. There is also a nostalgic sensation in the poem, as the narrator indulges in reminisces about her past experiences and life stages. I believe that the titles of each poem represent the reason for the narrators’ inability to belong. â€Å"My Parents kept Me from Children who were Rough† suggests how the poet blames his parents for not being able to bask in the pleasures the bullies experienced, as they were very protective of him. I get the impression that he envied the other children’s freedom, in contrast to his restricted life enforced upon him. On the other hand, the title â€Å"An Unknown Girl† has a double meaning as it could refer to the actual girl hennaing the poet’s hand or it may refer to the poet itself. The poet finds this culture overwhelming yet admires it, and she strongly craves to be a part of it. Moreover, the title â€Å"Crabbit Old Woman† itself illustrates the way the old woman is perceived by the nurses. This stereotypical image is what prevents the nurses from exploring the real â€Å"old woman† and prevents her from belonging into their worl d. Structure aids a reader to visualise a poem and the free verse structure in An Unknown Girl expresses the narrator’s exploration of thought and conveys her dream-like admiration. The lack of pauses in the poem is successful, as these would break the connection between the narrator and the bazaar. I felt the layout of the poem was particularly striking, and this furthermore made me realize that it could symbolize the pretty henna, which is described as â€Å"icing† to us, enhancing its graceful manner. Similarly, the use of enjambment in Crabbit Old Woman depicts to the reader the constant running of thoughts and memories of the various stages of life of the old woman. This creates a fast pace coupled with a constant rhyme and free flowing rhythm, which contrasts with the impression the nurses have of old people being slow. I believe the poet chose to use a fast pace and rhyme, to further emphasis that point. Moreover, I feel the use of three structured stanzas with four lines each in My parents†¦ made me realize how the narrator was always forced to follow his parents’ rules and hence, control himself from many things. As a child, one is helpless in front of his or her parents’ decisions and therefore, I feel as if the author felt caged. I sometimes feel obligated to my parents’ decisions and this often aggravates me, hence I can understand the underlying tone of anger and blame placed upon the parents in this poem. The use of effective language by the poets helps suggest the ideas of the poems. The constant use of similes in My Parents†¦ show the child’s admiration and interest for the bullies; as â€Å"muscles like iron† suggests strength and power, which are qualities that generally excite young boys. â€Å"Torn Clothes† reveal class differentiation and this helped justify the reason why the parents did not want the narrator to be a part of the bullies. On the contrary, Moniza Alvi uses striking imagery in her poem, as she paints a wonderful metaphoric image in our minds depicting her state of longing to be a part of this culture. The way the narrator will â€Å"lean across a country [India] with my hands outstretched longing for the unknown girl in the neon bazaar† is a very powerful image. I can almost imagine an anxious woman holding out her arms, in hope to receive her roots; it gives me the idea that the narrator is practically begging for this connection with her hometown. â€Å"Colours leave the street float up in balloons† is another influential metaphoric image. This symbolizes how the poet is trying to reach out for something [her roots], but it is not within her grasp. Moreover, the constant repetition of â€Å"an unknown girl is hennaing my hand† gives me the impression that the poet needs to constantly remind herself that she connects with this place; showing her desperation to remain connected to her roots. I chose these poems as I felt I could relate to them very well. I can understand Alvi’s situation, as I myself am away from my country of origin and often I find myself indulging in a more foreign culture, yet many a times I get nostalgic about the place I come from, despite feeling detached and distant from it. In addition, I think I could share my thoughts and feelings very well with My parents†¦ as it is about a young adult, just like me. Fitting in and being part of a group of children is very vital and therefore, I solemnly sympathize with the narrator. Lastly, I think Crabbit Old Woman deals with a great problem of stereotypical images, which are present in all works of life. It was inspiring to see the old woman standing up against these stereotypical images created by society. The poem made me to realize that I need to offer more respect and admiration for the older generation. All the three poems are written in a unique style and each one conveys very deep issues, in accordance with the universal theme of belonging. All the poets were very much successful in conveying their ideas and they were able to create a lasting impact upon the readers.

Persuasive essay on school uniforms Essay

Nearly all students do not support school uniforms; however they do not know the benefits in wearing them. Believe it or not, there are a lot more pros than cons when it comes to wearing school uniforms. First off, school uniforms will develop a better teaching and learning environment. They will also save families a good deal of money. And lastly, school uniforms will eliminate a lot of bulling and labeling. A school would be a better place, for teachers and students, if school uniforms were required. The most important benefit of school uniforms is the atmosphere it would create. With school uniforms kids couldn’t wear anything outrageous or abstract. This would limit distractions in the classroom, producing a better teaching and learning zone. Also, school uniforms would make for a better student teacher relationship because everyone would be looked at as an equal. Another distraction uniforms could remove is the problem with females wearing reveling clothing. Lastly, a majority of students can take up thirty minutes picking out there clothes for the next day. If uniforms were mandatory that time could be used to do school work or get a better night sleep for the following day. Read more: Should there be school uniforms essay Families would save an unbelievable amount of money from school uniforms. Students wouldn’t have to worry about buying the newest, hippest clothes which cost a fortune. That would save families hundreds of dollars. Sure, kids would still need clothes other than their uniform, but not as many. Families would also be more time efficient with uniforms. One example of this would be a smaller laundry load. In addition, you wouldn’t need to worry about rushing to get something washed for the next day because you already know what you will be wearing. Bulling and labeling would be cut down if school uniforms were accepted by a school system. If uniforms were mandatory everyone would be equal and no biases could be set by someone’s apparel. Like wise, students couldn’t label someone as a scrub or high maintenance. When someone gets picked on, it is most likely because they are wearing something that is â€Å"not in† or because they are dressed â€Å"different†. If school uniforms were worn this would be a non-issue. Lastly, you couldn’t be labeled regarding your personal  interests. For example, if you were wearing a band’s tee-shirt or a preppy clothing line. If this wasn’t and concern everyone would be open to each other and groups wouldn’t be made based on what you are wearing. The only reason Student do not wish to wear uniforms is because they only care about looking good. However, they don’t know they can till look good in a school uniforms. Also, much more students would be open to school uniforms if they knew all the success they would get from them. Student and staff would have a much better school year if school uniforms were worn.

Wednesday, August 14, 2019

By 1918 there was general agreement that a League Essays - Structure

By 1918 there was general agreement that a League of Nations should be established. The key articles of the actual covenant (constitution) spelled out the role of the league in identifying and addressing threats to peace, the settlement of disputes, and the imposition of sanctions against states violating international agreements. These articles occasioned limited disagreement. Participating nations also generally agreed that the league should be made up of an executive council, a deliberative assembly, and an administrative secretariat, but they disagreed over the exact function and makeup of these bodies. In an early draft of the covenant, membership of the council was restricted to the Great Powers and any smaller nation-states that the Great Powers chose to invite. However, the formulation that eventually prevailed designated the Great Powers as permanent members of the council while small powers had nonpermanent membership. The operation and membership of the assembly, which was the model for the General Assembly of the United Nations after 1945, was also a subject of some debate. In fact, its overall operation and significance was really only worked out in subsequent years. The administrative secretariat, set up as a coordinating and administrative body, was a less divisive issue. Its power was grounded entirely in the council and the assembly. The headquarters of the league were in Geneva, Switzerland, where the secretariat prepared reports and agendas. The assembly, which was made up of representatives of all the member governments, set policy and met on an annual basis. Britain, France, Italy, and Japan held permanent membership in the council, which met more regularly than the assembly. All decisions taken by the council and the assembly had to be unanimous if they were to be binding. The league also included a number of subsidiary organizations. One of these, the International Labor Organization (ILO) was a specific response to the Russian Revolution . It was hoped that the ILO would appease some of the more radical tendencies within the trade union movement in various parts of the world and curtail the attractions of international communism. A Permanent Court of International Justice was also set up, as well as a range of commissions that dealt with issues such as refugees, health, drugs, and child welfare. At the time of its foundation in 1919 the league had forty-two member governments. This increased to fifty-five by 1926; however, the failure of the United States to become a member contributed significantly to the decline of the organization by the 1930s. Meanwhile, Germany only became a member in 1926 and withdrew in 1933, while the Soviet Union was only a member from 1934 to 1939. The Japanese government departed in 1933, and the Italian government ended its association with the league in 1937.

Tuesday, August 13, 2019

Organizational Communication Concepts and Skills Assignment

Organizational Communication Concepts and Skills - Assignment Example Therefore, if the organization tends to neglect socializing the employees, then in such cases the employees must themselves socialize. There are two distinct communication network taking place in organizational environment. They are formal as well as informal network. The formal network is making communication following the hierarchical structure of the organization. On the other hand, the informal network comprises communication following the grapevine (Cairo University, 2012). It is a well known fact that successful communication in an organization enhances the efficiency, minimizes the turnover of the employees and also helps in the development of the office atmosphere. The chief objective of this discussion is to propose a new communication structure for an organization. The five different concepts that the discussion shall evaluate are active listening, organizational culture, and conflict resolution, leadership strategies as well as formal and informal communication. Analysis o f the Concepts Important For Successful Communication within an Organization Active Listening It is a well known fact that effective listening is significant for improving communication. However, the managers are not always found to be listening since active listening is not considered to be a natural procedure. Mental as well as physical efforts are needed on part of the listener. Intra-organizational listening can be considered as an influential competitive tool (Helms & Haynes, 1992). In the context of the business world, listening is considered to be a significant element of effectual communication in an organization. While communicating with the members of the organization, listening will assist in avoiding any kind of confusions, comprehending the work lucidly and thus creating a positive connection with whom the communication is initiated. The communication experts have agreed to the fact that active listening as a major factor which comprises behaviors such as empathetic bod y language, posing useful questions, validating employee expression via considerate conversation turn-taking along with rephrasing for ensuring mutual understanding. Active listening generally comprises the focus of the consultants upon the clients with an indication that they are listening closely to the issue presented and the client’s interpretation of this aspect (The University of Maine, 2012). For a communication to be effective and successful, it is vital for the listeners to motivate themselves to listen. They are supposed to decide precisely why they are listening. Active listening offers numerous advantages to the organization. It leads to save in time by means of people’s defenses and gain significant information without repeating the same conversation always. It permits the organization to evaluate a situation accurately (Kuboto, Mishima, & Nagata, 2004). However, one of the facts regarding active listening is that it is not an easy skill to be attained. It might as well require alterations in one’s own basic attitudes. Active listening carries an element of personal risk. Creating an attitude of sincere interest in the speaker is not an easy task. It can hence be created by being willing to risk viewing the world from the speaker’s point of view (Rogers & Farson, 2010). Organizational Culture Organizational culture is considered to be a significant component in the context of organizational communication. Culture is generally comprehended as how people make sense of

Monday, August 12, 2019

Personal narrative about social media impacted your life Essay

Personal narrative about social media impacted your life - Essay Example One of the aspects it brought is reconnection to my old friends whom we studied together in my school. I had a classmate who moved with the family to Europe to live had no idea on how to communicate with her. I used face book to search using he full names she used, I found several users who used such names but I could identify her through her profile picture. She was my best buddy and the social media brought us together once more. We had a lot to share about her school and our families. Face book is one of the powerful social media that connect people who have a common origin and interest. With the help of my profile information, the users can view my profile and send friend request. Finding friends was the climax of the fun in the social site, face book brought the aspect of mutual friends which involves getting to know my friend’s friends adding new people to my friends’ list. I loved the idea of knowing more people each time I accessed face book. I left school at an era where social media had just become "the new thing in town" back then. During those times, Smartphone were technologies used in movies and phones when internet access had just been introduced to the market. Among other social sites I chose face book as one the powerful tool of communication globally. It was through Face book that I was able to interact with new friends from the mutual friends. The new friends might have mutual friends that would connect me to many other friends making it a chain of friends. Finding new friends among friends was not the only way, I could visit the face book groups that I knew and from there I could meet the entire society that the group belonged. Sometimes I could get disappointed using face book since some friends provided false information about them. Trying to find my old or new friends was not also easy since I realized that some people are just imposters which brought a negative view about face book. Relationships with people

Sunday, August 11, 2019

Appraisal Methods Of Workers Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Appraisal Methods Of Workers - Essay Example The Director of Talent is required to perform different tasks and roles efficiently to ensure proper management of the company.The job I would want to obtain after my undergraduate studies is that of a financial analyst.Financial Analyst Career Duties: Reports economic position by organizing and analyzing fiscal and monetary plans, predictions, and reportsAnalyses economic status by observing discrepancies from the plan.Evaluates financial status through comparison and analysis of plans and projections with attained results.Expands financial status by evaluating results and variances and finding trends and endorsing actions.Reconciles transactions by equating and rectifying figures.Improves efficiency by developing computerized applications and reducing duplications and managing info requirements.Provides information to management by assembling and summarizing data; preparing reports; making presentations of findings, analyses, and recommendations.Appraises job understanding by parta king in educational opportunities; reading professional journals; keeping personal linkages and contributing in professional groups.Undertakes finance and business mission by concluding related results as required.Skills/Qualifications: Writing Skills, Enlightening Others, Financial Abilities, Predicting, Corporate Finance, Financial Analysis, and Financial Software, Analyzing Information, Statistical Analysis, Procedure Improvement, Financial Planning, and Approach.

Saturday, August 10, 2019

African cinema is a film world in search of a constituency and a Essay

African cinema is a film world in search of a constituency and a community, and it realises that it is potentially a borderless cinema - John Akomfrah (Givanni, 1995, 36) Discuss - Essay Example This is primarily the ground why J. Akomfrah claims that a sense of community and constituency are continuously yearned for by the borderless cinematic endeavor of an African film industry traditionally inclined to bring to exhibition various aspects of living especially the scenes at the wild, life under poverty, or tribal struggles across the vastness of an African land. The 1975 Algiers Charter on African Cinema placed emphasis on the need of the film to communicate the cultural identity of the people of Africa and develop this goal for the viewers to achieve a more sensible understanding of a Nigerian culture. New African cinematographers have come up with a serious objective of informing and educating the public, knowing how powerful a film is in delivering crucial expressions of African way of life in a simplified approach that may be comprehended by the majority whether educated or uneducated (The Algiers, 1975). In 1973, Djibril Diop Mambà ©ty directed â€Å"Touki Bouki† which is a movie about the meeting of a cowherd Mory and a university student Anta who seem estranged to their places of origin, Senegal and Africa, that they decided to consider travelling to Paris for a change of fate though this would entail fraudulent job of satisfying a monetary requirement. One may particularly note the significance of adventure for an African life in this film yet the context from which it sheds light toward conflict resolution is different from the perspective of the film â€Å"Yeelen† after the direction of Souleymane Cissà © in 1987. Yeelen demonstrates a personal conquest of a young warrior who possesses powers of magic and summons his other relative in combat against a sorcerer who happens to be his own father. Despite the amply differing themes of these two films, both reflect a necessary quest for settlement in favor of the situations that fit each character. On the other hand, Idrissa

Friday, August 9, 2019

THREAT ANALYSIS Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

THREAT ANALYSIS - Essay Example Firstly, the process requires a source of the integral fissionable explosive that is in the right amounts and quality; also, it requires a terrorist with the knowledge of the science and technical works for execution. With a person, that has ample knowledge in the field, fabrication of the nuclear weapon is possible depending with the materials acquired and the target location of the terrorists. After the manufacturing, the complex and last parts involve successfully delivering the weapon to the target location and detonating the explosive. In these occasions, the terrorists need to be knowledgeable about the security policies in the target location and come up with plans of transporting the weapon without causing alarm. Without people that are conversant enough, the terrorist attacks fail due to complications such lack of communication and network blocks the Iranian infiltration in 2012, the saboteurs did not succeed because the threat was identified early enough, and the aut horities had possible suspects . Definitely, the terrorists should be conservative and willing to risk or lose their lives like the common suicide bombers, in order for the attacks to succeed; furthermore, the people detonating the weapons should avoid accidents such as spontaneous ignition or early detonation. Today, there are only a limited number of terrorists groups with the capabilities of making successful nuclear weapon attacks. This is due to the lack of resources and advanced security in nuclear facilities. Al Qaeda and Al Shabab are today’s popular terrorist groups that have managed to conduct attacks in parts of the world with complex tactics. Al Qaeda is very resourceful as it divides into two groups based in Yemen and the core in Pakistan (Jonas &Swift 2008). Moreover, it has resourceful organizations and other terrorist groups like Al Shabab as its associates; typically, this

Raising money and funding Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Raising money and funding - Assignment Example Financial steps to reduce chances of business failure include ensuring that the business maintains ploughed back profits, good relations with creditors and suppliers, as well as improving entrepreneurial skills (Feinleib, 2011). The factors outlined guard the new business from problems related to inadequate finances and expertise. In addition, a business plan may help foresee potential failure in business. A business plan is a statement that stipulates the business goals, an evaluation of internal and external business environments, and a plan on the means of attaining goals. The core elements of a complete business plan include the goals of the firm, its background information, means of achieving the goals, financial analysis, opportunities, and threats facing the firm, and the exit strategy (Feinleib, 2011). Sources of funding for business owners include personal savings, donations from family and friends, bank loans, as well as venture capital. The sources are mainly essential for new businesses as a preventive measure against failure. Because banks may not offer unsecured loans, effective strategies of securing funding include using equity funding where the firm offers to sell part of its value to investors who become shareholders to the firm. In addition, venture capital is preferred, in which case the venture capitalist firm owns part of the firm and shares in its profits upon providing startup

Thursday, August 8, 2019

Business Decision Making Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Business Decision Making - Assignment Example The recommendations made by the respondents will also be considered along with the recommendations of the final report. Research Methodology The research methodology to be incorporated in the report is primary research. Secondary research methodology refers to the methodology that focuses on collecting data from already existing resources. Secondary data can be collected from online sources or from published sources. Secondary data can also be collected from government or organization sources. Now a day’s secondary research methodology is popular among the researchers because the internet provides data from all parts of the world on the desktop (Driscoll, 2011, p. 3). The researchers can gain large amount of data from reliable sources of the internet and thus can gain data in much less time than compared to gathering data from physical libraries. The researchers can use the cost cutting to enhance the scope of the research in future. The data collected from the peer reviewed j ournals provide authenticated data. The researchers do not need to appoint external associate to collect data as theses are readily available over the net. Therefore secondary research is extremely popular among researchers as it has got some advantages over the primary method of data collection in terms of cost or time (Hox and Boeije, 2007). Primary research methodology In order to form current information to be the basis of research, it is important to incorporate methodologies like primary research. Primary research is created through the development of questionnaires that can be both structured as well as unstructured. The structured questionnaire is closed ended questions. The structured questionnaire is based on interviews on an existing set of alternatives. The open ended questions like to gather data through open views of the respondents (Reja, U. Et. Al.,2003). Both types of questions can be sent through mail to the respondents. The researchers can also appoint external au thorities to conduct direct interviews. The respondents are selected in the form of framing the target population into groups and then selecting the respondents from that group with the probabilistic or the non probabilistic methods. In this assignment two groups are selected namely the staffs of the restaurant and the students of the university. They have further been categorised into different age groups namely 18-24, 25-30 and 30+. On the basis of two categories the respondent groups the sampling method into Stratified Sampling method where 25 of the respondents have been selected from many respondents (University of Alberta, n.d). Herein for conducting the research, 25 respondents have been chosen from the categories in order to provide recommendation to the restaurant authority. Further types of questions that can be constructed for the purpose are qualitative as well as quantitative sets. The qualitative research tries to infer the impact of the behavioural parameters. Quantit ative research focuses in gaining inferences with the help of graphs and charts which can further be used for statistical modelling. Interviews conducted relating to the niche group of respondents contains both the students and the staffs. This is needful for the authorities to have a proper inference of the behaviour of the respondents from both perspectives. The researchers need to conduct the interview in unbiased fashion as biased data will lead to false information (Geer, n.d.). This is expected to

Wednesday, August 7, 2019

Summary of Running Observation Essay Example for Free

Summary of Running Observation Essay This observation was made at 11:30 am for 20 minutes while the kids were playing in the park. Observation was done on 3-4 year old children. The children were playing in the park under teacher’s supervision. There were two teachers present in the park. Some of the children were playing on the play structure: on slides, some on monkey bars. Children that did not want to play on the play structure were coloring. One of the boys was playing with the ball on the play structure. The teacher instructed him to play with the ball on the grass and another boy joined him too. They started playing catch on the grass. The teacher was keeping an eye on them. After some time a 3rd boy wanted to play ball. The teacher suggested that they make a triangle and play together. After some time one of the boys left to play on the play structure. After 10 minutes into the observation the teacher asked the children if they would like to eat apples. A 3rd teacher bought sliced apples and served them on the table on the side with water and small cups for water. A few kids went to eat apples. After they finished eating apples they wiped their hands with a tissue paper and received a small cup of water from the teacher and went back to play with their friends. While a few kids were eating apples there was a girl screaming and crying on the play structure as she had wet her pants. The teacher tried to console and calm her down but she wanted to be left alone and kept on crying and screaming. After a few minutes another teacher tried to calm her down. The child kept on crying and screaming, â€Å"My pants hurt, Ouchy Ouchy†, and started to pull her pants down. The teacher in a calm voice told the child to stop the tantrum, calm down and then she can help her in the classroom. After few minutes, the child calmed down, holding teachers hand went into the classroom. One of the teacher mentioned that the child’s mom had dropped her early to school and she had a change of schedule that day.

Tuesday, August 6, 2019

Aims and objectives Essay Example for Free

Aims and objectives Essay Based on these characteristics of project management, it can be gathered that an event is also a project. What distinguishes an event from other projects is that it has a very strong marketing element because it involves many actors, from the provider of the product or service and the prospective clients. Events assembles people therefore there is a collective sense of objective. Because of this attendance, events therefore have a strong promotional element (Soares). When it comes to bars and clubs, it is important that these establishments market themselves effectively in order to maintain their businesses. These establishments rely on customer count as a source of profits especially as they sell products like food and drinks, and services such as dancing and other entertainment-based gatherings. It is therefore important that these bars and clubs ensure they have a strong patronage and customer flow in order to assure that their businesses remain competitive. In observing the bar and club scene, there is much competition especially in a city like London. In looking at resources for these events such as TimeOut, there is always a list of bars and clubs with their respective events. These events may include a theme night, a special guest DJ or performer, a concert, and other gimmicks. It can be also observed that these events are strongly driven by sponsorships such as partnerships with relevant products and services like alcoholic drinks, fashion labels, and other lifestyle related products and brands. In this regard, when it comes to the application of events management concept in bars and clubs, it is evident that these have had some successes. This therefore elicits close inspection as to how these concepts are applied and which concepts are successful. It should be noted that due to the strong marketing element in these initiatives, these bars and clubs are also subject to what is known a product life cycle a cycle in which a product or service may start to plateau and decline. Hence, this reflects as to why bars and clubs may have their time; some bars and clubs that were famous a few years ago may have already shut down or are losing customers because new concepts get introduced in the market. It can be also observed that certain event themes also went through their peak and lost their lusters; examples are the raves, the cream parties, and the bubble parties, among others. Hence, this shows that although generally, events management concepts work in the context of bars and clubs, they dont work all the time and are not necessarily sustainable. This thereby shows the strong association between a project and an event something that is unique that has beginning and an end. This research therefore aims to explore the events management concept at greater depths by means of looking at the actual applications and the industry practices. As certain events tend to become old, the turnover of new events concepts need to be examined, especially in a market with changing preferences and values. In addition to the aspect of events concepts, the management aspect is also examined by this paper. This is especially important as the market is volatile, and the entertainment and leisure sectors tend to get easily affected by economic and market challenges. This paper examines how events actually take place and how certain strategies may need to be formulated in order to respond to challenges in resources. This therefore bring up the issues on cost management and how bars and clubs intend to profit from their events. This may then bring up certain events management concepts and applications from other event genres as applied in affairs that take place in bars and clubs. The events management industry in the UK is a million-pound industry considering the number of events held in the country, from conferences to major concerts. The industry also involves many sectors including those from the hospitality, entertainment and leisure services. This research therefore localises an exploration of events management in a specific context, and identifies the important factors that can affect the relevant businesses and establishments in this sector. In order to have a substantial insight on events management concepts in the context of bars and clubs establishments, this research therefore aims to achieve and implement the following: To develop a framework of evaluation on the applicability of events management concepts as integral elements to the marketing success of bars and clubs. To establish how events management applications are integral to the success of the bars and clubs sectors. To create a workable research framework as based on the assessment of actual movements and developments in the dynamics of bar and club business in the city, especially as to how the application of events management concepts make a difference to the business of the bars and clubs. This includes both primary and secondary research. To identify the factors leading to entertainment establishment success in the context of the marketing mix, with an emphasis on the promotional dimension. Based on the sourced literature, it appears that there are a few studies with regards to events management, especially as to how these affects bars and clubs. Because of the close nature of events with projects, and due to the function of events as marketing tools especially in this specific context of the study, much of the reviewed literature touches on the marketing aspect, the project and event management resources, and some literature touching on bars, clubs, nightlife and other entertainment establishments.

Monday, August 5, 2019

The Process Of Hematopoiesis And How Its Controlled Biology Essay

The Process Of Hematopoiesis And How Its Controlled Biology Essay In humoral mediated response of the immune system, the clonal proliferation results into antibody secreting plasma cells and memory B-cells. The primary response has a lag of about 5-7 days during which the B-cells becomes activated by the antigen and T-helper cells. During the lag period, differentiation and proliferation of B-cells takes place into plasma cells. Antibody level begins to increase and reaches its peak at about day 14 and the drop begins once the plasma cells die. In the secondary response, clonal expansion of memory B-cells takes place and the antibody levels are much higher. These memory cells respond more rapidly to the antigen. Moreover, since many memory cells are present for the primary response, the number of plasma cells generated are more in the secondary response and the antibody levels are higher [2].   3.Briefly describe the functions of the following cells of the immune system; dendritic cells; macrophages; neutrophils; T helper cells. Ans) Dendritic Cell These cells resemble the dendrites of the nerve cells and have a long membrane extensions. They can be either present on the epidermis (skin) and mucous membranes (langehans cell) ; heart , lungs, kidney, GI tract (interstital dendritic cell) ; T-cell are of secondary lymphoid and thymic medulla ( Interdigitating dendritic cell) and in blood and lymph (circulating dendritic cell). They represent high levels of class II MHC molecules. Dendritic cells are APCs. They engulf the antigen by phagocytosis/endocytosis and carry it to the various lymphoid organs where they represent the antigen to T lymphocytes [2].    Macrophages They arise from monocytes. It functions as a scavenger that ingest debris, damaged and dying cells as well as foreign organism. They either contain class II MHC molecules or the co-stimulatory B7 membrane molecules. Once the foreign organism is inside the macrophage, they are either killed by lysosomal enzymes or by O2 free radicals which is released by phagosomes[1].   Neutrophils They are active phagocytic cells and always reach the site of inflammation. The foreign body is killed by the various lytic and bactericidal substances which are present within the primary and secondary granules. They employ both O2 dependent and O2 independent pathway to generate antimicrobial substances. It is better than macrophage since they exhibit larger respiratory burst and express higher level of defensins [2].   T-helper cells-   T-cells are formed in the bone marrow but mature in the thymus. There are two types of T-cells- TH and TC .TH cells have CD4 whereas TC has CD8. The TH cells gets activated when the cell recognizes and interacts with an antigen. After it is activated, it forms into an effector cell and secretes growth factors known as cytokines. These cytokines play an important role in activating B cells, Tc cells, macrophages and elicits an immune response. Different types of immune response occurs due to different types of cytokines[2].   4) What are the two fundamental approaches to drug discovery? Ans) The two approaches to drug discovery are rational drug design and molecular diversity. Rational drug design The drugs work in the body by interacting with the receptor and they alter the activities in such a way that it brings about a betterment of the body. This method uses the information about structure of the drug receptor or create a candidate drug. The 3-D structure of the protein can be determined using methods such as X-ray crystallography or nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The researchers in the pharmaceutical industry can use whatever information is available on the databases and find a chemical compound which can react with the receptor and can be tested in the labs. If the interacting compound cannot be found then other programmes can be used to find the compounds with similar properties to known ligands. This method is done to avoid the expenses. The first drug produced by this method is Relenza which is used to treat influenza. The other drugs developed to treat HIV infections are Ritonivir and Indinavir [3]. Molecular diversity The strategy applied in molecular diversity is the isolation of bioactive molecules molecular libraries such as nucleic acids, amino acids and small organic molecules. The main goal is to isolate molecules from libraries of chemical compounds or proteins and study the structure or shape of their target with the binding with affinity and specificity. The anti-inflammatory mAb Humira is a biolgic isolated from molecular diversity.   5. How does the flu virus infect cells? Give a brief overview of how the flu drug relenza was discovered. (Note :   Relenza is not as biologic but a small molecule drug). Ans) Influenza viral particles are surrounded by an outer envelope a lipid bilayer which they acquire from the plasma membrane of the infected host cell during the process by budding. In the envelope the two glycoproteins which are present are Hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA). HA is responsible for attaching the virus to the host cell. HA is a trimer and it binds to the sialic acid groups on host cell glycoproteins and glycolipids by conserving the amino acid sequence to form a small groove in the HA molecule. Neuraminidase cleaves N-acetylneuraminic (sialic) acid from the viral glycoproteins and the host cell membrane glycoproteins. This facilitates viral budding from the infected host cell. Once the virus is inside the host cell, the HA binds to the walls of the endosome (acidic nature) because of which the viral coating collapses. Within the envelope, matrix protein surrounds the nucleocapsid   which consist of 8 different strands of single stranded (ssRNA) and are ass ociated with protein and RNA polymerase. Once inside the cell, the RNA strand encodes one or more different influenza proteins. Many copies of the virus are made in the nucleus and then it moves to the cytoplasm to form viral proteins including HA and NA. The new viruses which are formed move out of the cell by forming buds and moving out against the plasma membrane[2].   Relenza This drug is created by using rational design. The discovery was funded by the Australian biotech company Biota. The structure of neuraminidase was known by X-ray crystallography. A competitive inhibitor which is a sialic acid analogue, is an inhibitor of neuraminidase. The general function of neuraminidase is that it cleaves sialic acid from the virus and the cell surface and prevent clumping and allows the virus to spread to other cells. Relenza induces clumping and reduces viral spreading. 6.What is meant by pharmacogenomics and how might pharmacogenomics be applied to drug development in the future? What is an example of a biologic where patient genetic profiling is used to evaluate the suitability of the patient for therapy? Ans) Pharmacogenomic is the study of the roles of genetic variation in the response to drugs. It includes information from genomics, proteomics, bioinformatics and other disciplines such as biochemistry and toxicology in order to synthesize newer and safer drugs. As the sequences of all our genes and the protein they encode for are determined, this will reveal many new targets for drug actions. It also reveals polymorphism of enzymes and proteins related to drug metabolism, action and toxicity DNA probes which are capable of detecting them will be synthesized, permitting screening of individuals for potentially harmful polymorphism prior to the start of the therapy. As the structures of relevant proteins and their polymorphism are revealed, model building and other technique will permit the design of drugs that take into account both the normal protein targets and their polymorphism. In simple words, the drugs will be tailor-made for individuals based on their genetic profiles[4]. Th is is the application of pharmacogenomics in drug development. The example where genetic profiling is used to evaluate the suitability of the patient is ERBB2 is a 185 kDa tyrosine kinase receptor over expressed in approximately 25-30% of human breast cancer .   7. Give an example where over expression of a cytokine results in a disease state. What biologics, if any, have been developed to treat this disease state? Ans)   Rheumatoid arthritis is a an inflammatory disease. The major symptom is chronic inflammation of the joints including shoulders, ankles, elbows and knees. It is characterized by the inflammation of the synovium along with the the destruction of the joint cartilage and bone. The over expression of cytokines such as TNF, IL-1, IL-8, IFN ÃŽ ³ have been detected in the synovial fluid. Cytokines such as TNF activate the synovial cells which produce proteolytic enzyme such as collagenase which leads to the destruction of tendons, ligaments and cartilage. The cytokines are produced due to the activity of T cell and macrophage activation.   A number of biologics have been approved for treating rheumatoid arthritis[5]. They are cimzia, enbrel, humira, kineret, orencia, remicade, rituxan and simponi[6].    Rituxan Rituximab is sold under the trade name Rituxan. Rituxan is a chimeric monoclonal antibody against the protein CD20 which is found on the surface of B cells. Rituxan when given in combination with methotrexate is given to adult patients with minor to acute conditions who had an inadequate response to one or more TNF antagonist therapies. The side effect of rituxan is that patients show hypertension, nausea, upper respiratory tract infection, pyrexia etc.[7] .   8. Interferons are used as biologics to treat viral infections. How does interferon induce the anti-viral state in cells? Ans) Interferons are antiviral and show their effect in a signaling pathway. There are two types of interferons, type I and type II. IFN-I is produced by cells under appropriate conditions including IFN-ÃŽ ±/ÃŽ ². IFN-II are produced by a few number of cells such as NK cells, T-helper cells and dendritic cells. IFN-II includes IFN-ÃŽ ³. IFN-I plays an important role in the innate antiviral response. IFN-ÃŽ ±/ÃŽ ²is responsible for inducing the anti-viral activity by binding to IFN receptor on the cell surface, which leads to activation of receptor-associated JAKs (Janus Kinase) such as JAK-1 and TYK-2. This activates the STATs (signal transducer and activator of transcription) due to phosphorylation which leads to the formation of ISG factor (ISGF)-3 complex which consists of STAT-1 and -2 and p48. After phosphorylation at Tyr701 and 692 of IFN receptors by IFN-1, STAT-1, and -2, there is formation of a heterodimer which translocates to the nucleus and forms an association with p48(I RF-9).   The complex (STAT-1 and -2 and IRF-9) is called as ISGF-3 and it associates with ISREs to activate ISGs. The 3 antiviral proteins involved in IFN-mediated inhibition of virus infection are : 1)  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   The Rnase L pathway which degrades viral RNAs and then activates dsRNA. 2)  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   PKR inhibits mRNA translation by phosphorylating translation initiation factor 3)  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Mx proteins possessing GTPase activity which restricts virus infection at many stages such as primary transcription, transcription and intracellular trafficking of viral proteins or genomes. Thus, interferons induce the anti-viral state in cells[8].